Wednesday, November 27, 2019
With reference to the NMC Professional Code of Conduct (2008) how should a nurse act in order to promote and maintain a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s dignity Essay Example
With reference to the NMC Professional Code of Conduct (2008) how should a nurse act in order to promote and maintain a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s dignity? Essay 34 year old Mary White is in your care. She has limited mobility which means that she is unable to walk without assistance. Her chronic and life limiting condition has recently led to a problem with eating and drinking and now Mary is unable to feed herself (although she can take food from a spoon and drink from a beaker) and requires total assistance in this activity. Whilst her body has deteriorated and her speech is limited Mary WhiteÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive function is intact although she is tearful and depressed. It is meal time and you are preparing to attend to Mary WhiteÃ¢â¬â¢s nutritional needs. Objectives: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Define the concept of dignity and discuss the importance of dignity in nursing care Ã¢â¬ ¢ Discuss how the Code of Professional Conduct (NMC 2008) will guide your actions Ã¢â¬ ¢ What are the issues that need to be considered when helping a patient to eat and drink Ã¢â¬ ¢ What skills would you need to use to encourage Mary to eat and drink Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reflect on how your understanding of dignity in health care may affect your future practice We will write a custom essay sample on With reference to the NMC Professional Code of Conduct (2008) how should a nurse act in order to promote and maintain a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s dignity? specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on With reference to the NMC Professional Code of Conduct (2008) how should a nurse act in order to promote and maintain a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s dignity? specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on With reference to the NMC Professional Code of Conduct (2008) how should a nurse act in order to promote and maintain a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s dignity? specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Essay: Nurses play an important role in the healthcare industry. It is required of them to take care of difficult and uncooperative patients. Their services are invaluable in the domain of palliative care as well. But in recent years, from being a humanitarian service, nursing has grown into a specialized branch of healthcare industry. The profession of Nursing has undergone several changes over the last few decades. From being an ad hoc service, it has now become a separate field of study in its own right. As a result of growing expectations, new standards of accountability have also been developed and enforced. This is true here in the UK and much of the developed world (Tortora, 2005). This essay will deal with Scenario Two, namely that of patient Mary. By referring to the recently constituted Nursing and Midwifery CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s Professional Code of Conduct this essay will layout the dos and donÃ¢â¬â¢ts for a Nurse in the hypothetical scenario of caring for patient Mary. The Code of Conduct is a comprehensive document that outlines the core responsibilities of Nurses in the United Kingdom. Each aspect of nursing is neatly organized under a separate heading with two further levels of relevant subheadings. The first principle to be followed is stated as Ã¢â¬Å"Make the care of people your first concern, treating them as individuals and respecting their dignityÃ¢â¬ . Here, the key concept is Ã¢â¬ËdignityÃ¢â¬â¢. In fact, it would not be far fetched to state that Ã¢â¬ËdignityÃ¢â¬â¢ is at the centre of all nursing activity. In the case of Mary, since she is immobile and has limited speaking ability, it is quite easy to forget that she is a full human being. A testament to her complete humanness is her fully functioning cognition. While Mary might not be able to articulate what she wants or what she feels, she can feel pain, hurt, anger, disappointment, happiness, etc. In other words, the entire gamut of human emotion is accessible to her f unctioning brain, although recognition of this fact might escape a casual observer at first (Marieb, 2005). As a Nurse adhering to the principles set forth in the Code of Conduct, I would first let Mary know that I treat her on par with any other human being. While taking complete care of a bed ridden patient can at times get tedious and monotonous, I would find ways of circumventing these. The best way of avoiding the monotony associated with nursing a bed ridden patient is by developing a personal bond with her. In the case of Mary, I will express through my words, gestures and general demeanour that I really care about her health and well being. Since MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive functions are fully alright, she can hear and understand what I am speaking to her. As any good nurse will do, I will attempt to win over her confidence and trust through my words and actions. A pedagogic approach would be unsuitable in the case of Mary, as her health condition is not frequently encountered in nursing practice. A more flexible and pragmatic approach would be more suitable. For example, a NMC president Nancy Kirkland says, Ã¢â¬Å"Rather than be prescriptive in the Code and set out pages and pages of rules that might be inappropriate and might not arise in different circumstances, we felt it would be better to use this other approach which allows the profession to use their professional judgement, relevant to the situation they are inÃ¢â¬ (www.nmc-uk.org, 2008). Considering the fact that Mary cannot verbally communicate her likes and dislikes, it is imperative that I understand what and when she likes to eat. As the broader Code of Conduct document spells out, collaborating with Mary would entail making arrangements to meet her language and communication needs. Moreover, I must share information with her in a way she can understand and the information that she seeks about her health is also duly provided her. The limited mobility available to Mary would allow her to nod in approval or disapproval of the food I am feeding her. Before I make preparations for her meal, I would intimate her of the items I have chosen for her meal. I would observe her subtle reaction and understand what she is trying to communicate. It is important that I do not force her to do something she does not want too. While the food chosen by me might adhere to the recommendations made by the nutritionist, I can still exercise discretion in tailoring it to MaryÃ¢â ¬â¢s preferences. As the Code of Conduct documents indicate, Ã¢â¬Å"Patients who have had a stroke may have difficulty in communicating. Nurses need to be alert to this, particularly if these patients are being treated fro and unrelated conditions as their communication need could be overlookedÃ¢â¬ . (www.nmc-uk.org, 2008) There are issues of practical convenience that need to be considered in feeding Mary. I will make sure that she is comfortably seated and that she assumes a suitable posture for eating food. I would observe if Mary is able to masticate the spoon fed morsel of food. If she has difficulty in chewing the intake properly, then I might resort to a semi-solid meal Ã¢â¬â one which could be easily swallowed. There are other such contingencies that could arise in the process of feeding Mary. But all times, I would adhere to the recommendations of the nutritionist and all times avoid those food items that had invoked allergic reactions in Mary in the past. It is also important to remember that Mary is showing signs of depression. Depressed patients will not generally have a healthy appetite. Their general lack of interest in life would mean that they are disinterested in food as well. There have been a few cases of injudicious action by nurses in the last few years. There are functional laws within the jurisdiction of theUnited Kingdomthat provide legal recourse to hospitalized patients who are provided negligent or inappropriate care by nurses. The following passage, taken from The Journal, dated November 25, 2005 illustrates this point: Ã¢â¬Å"A midwife from South Tyneside Hospital is facing a Nursing and Midwifery Council hearing, charged with not giving appropriate care to two patients between September and October 2003. Siew Seng Bradwell, 51, fromSouth Shieldswill appear before the council on Monday for the four-day hearing. A spokeswoman for the NMC said yesterday: Ã¢â¬ËThere are eight charges, all relating to failing to listen to the patient and giving unnecessary interventionÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (The Journal, 2005). This story is particularly relevant to the case of Mary, as she has difficulty in communicating due to her limited speech. As a nurse attending the ailing Mary, I would be eager to find out why she is tearful most of the time and showing signs of depression. To some degree, the chronic and early decline of her health is a contributing factor behind this. But Mary is only 34 years of age and she might not be mentally prepared for her bearing this burden. What she needs at this stage is not just nutritional inputs but also spiritual ones. Using the services of a psychological counsellor is an option that I would definitely use, for when Mary comes out of her Depression, her appetite for food will also return to normal. In addition to availing the services of a professional psychologist, I would also apply basic psychotherapeutic principles that are inculcated in every nurse. Hence, the scope of services that a nurse can offer is very wide ranging. Helen Keleher makes some valid observations in the introduction to her book titled Community Nursing Practice: Theory, Skills and Issues, where she states Ã¢â¬Å"Understanding the social basis of health is essential for effective nursing practice in the community because health is much more complex than merely the absence of disease or infirmity. The philosophy of community nursing embraces and promotes the social model of health, which provides a framework for community practice. The social foundations of health include the social context in which people live, work and play, as well as a wide range of social, economic, cultural, environmental and political factors that influence the health of every person and population group. Collectively these are known as the determinants of healthÃ¢â¬ (Keleher, 2007) The case of Mary should also be approached from the aforementioned perspective. As a nursing professional, I am expected to go beyond the text book rules and guidelines. I would try to understand the determinants of MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s health before arriving at concrete solutions for her. Many of the health determinants are not easy to quantify, for they are subjective assessments (Jones Symon, 2000). As a result, the process I adopt to gather MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s health determinants should go beyond merely pedagogic ones to include subjective and intuitive assessments. The Environment of Care advice sheet is useful here, as it lays out precautions and actions to be taken in contingency situations. As Mary has shown signs of depression, it is not far fetched to think that she may think of suicide. It is a moot point that she has limited mobility, which would thwart any attempts at suicide. The likely issue is not so much the probability of suicide as the very thought of it. I will have to make sure that the environment in which Mary lives is free of dangerous objects. If Mary is be to cared at her home and not at the controlled environment of a hospital, then the task of making the surroundings safe becomes more challenging. As the detailed document pertaining to environment of care states,
Sunday, November 24, 2019
All My Sons Ã¢â¬â The Story of Joe Keller Free Online Research Papers Parenting is a very difficult job; there are no exact guidelines on how to parent. Sometimes parents just donÃ¢â¬â¢t know where to draw the line, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s exactly what happened with Joe Keller in the novel All My Sons. During WWII, Joe Keller was in charge of a plant where they made special parts to machines like planes. In order to make more money he had put on default parts which caused the deaths of 21 pilots. Instead of taking the blame he blamed it on his partner in the business and he ended up in jail. Ã¢â¬Å"When you get older, you like to feel you accomplished something. My only accomplishment is my son.Ã¢â¬ This is a quote from Joe, it shows that he was into his family and wanted the best for them no matter what it took. Joe uses the excuse of doing it all for his son so that he could have a better life but a little extra money wonÃ¢â¬â¢t make things that much better. It seems that Joe is just trying to live his life through his son. But selling default parts seemed to make them grow farther apart and was not a very efficient way of parenting. Joe is really considered a Ã¢â¬Å"BeastÃ¢â¬ because he killed people for money to better his sonsÃ¢â¬â¢ life there are many other ways of doing that instead of killing innocent men fighting for our country. Joe is really thinking all about himself when he should think about all the other fathers whose sons died in the accident. There is no excuse for what he did and his biggest punishment is to live with the lie his whole life. Joe refused to accept responsibility, so he blamed it on his partner Steve Deever. Ã¢â¬Å"I was the beast, the guy that made 21 planes go down. Everyone thought I was guilty but I had a court paper that said I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t.Ã¢â¬ Chris (JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s son) canÃ¢â¬â¢t be blamed for being mad at Joe, any human being would be, and Joe committed murder. Joe didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know when to stop when it came to making more money, he was greedy but had a good reason to be and that reason was that he had a family to support. Joe was a role model to his son and wanted his son to respect him but in the end it made his son detest him. Research Papers on "All My Sons" - The Story of Joe KellerThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationCapital PunishmentQuebec and CanadaWhere Wild and West MeetThe Masque of the Red Death Room meanings19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraGenetic EngineeringTwilight of the UAWBringing Democracy to AfricaComparison: Letter from Birmingham and Crito
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Outlines - Essay Example Terrorists have been very successful at brainwashing young people through the Internet. This must be stopped. Terrorists take advantage of shifting alliances. They look for weaknesses and exploit them. In order to tackle terrorism, we have to work together. We have to isolate regimes that support terrorism and work hard to come up with common policies that allow us to stay united. All businesses require excellent human resources programs if they wish to be profitable and successful. In order for these programs to work well there must high morales. One thing is for sure: the quality of a food companys products and services and its reputation reflect the type of management it has and the morale of employees. In order to create high morale, the following steps should be taken at this company: The training process introduces employees to the company and in some ways sets the tone for the rest of their work term. Make sure they know from the beginning that they are valued and important to the company. Show them how to do things properly. Without respect people feel worthless and sullen. They want to be seen to be human beings. That mean treat people well and give them something to look forward to. Something they can work towards. Otherwise they will not be productive Communication is key. In order to solve morale problems, managers have to communicate with employees. They have to let employees know what is expected of them and what the future holds. If this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen then employees will feel left out in the cold and
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
See below - Essay Example From our infancy to our death our bones grow and change characteristics from flexible cartilage to mature Ã¢â¬Å"hard-as-rockÃ¢â¬ bone, to porous, brittle bones of old age. Two of the most important elements that make up hard, mature bone are Calcium and Phosphate. Calcium is the most abundant element in the body. Aside from maintaining bones and teeth it can also Ã¢â¬Å"enable the contraction of muscles, including the function of the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s most important muscle, the heart. It is also essential for normal blood clotting, proper nerve impulse transmission, and the appropriate support of connective tissueÃ¢â¬ (Krapp, 2002, p. 387). Phosphate plays many other roles in the body, mostly as a component of ATP and as a buffer to other compounds. In the bones, Phosphate and calcium ions combine into hydroxyapatite, which is the structural material found in bones. There is a limit to the amount of Calcium and Phosphate in the body. To maintain proper levels of both, the bones co ntinuously undergo bone remodeling. Bone remodeling is the process of bone deposit and bone resorption combined. It involves correcting imbalances between phosphate and calcium levels in the blood. Normally, a human has 9-11 mg of calcium for every 100ml of blood (Marieb & Hoehn, 2006). If it drops below that, calcium is taken from the blood, and if it exceeds it, the extra calcium is absorbed into the blood. The components that make bone remodeling happens are your Parathyroid hormones, your calcitonin, your osteoblasts and your osteoclasts. Parathyroid hormones are hormones released by the Parathyroid gland that stimulates osteoclasts to break down bone. Osteoclasts are made from the same kind of stem cells that turn into macrophages. They Ã¢â¬Å"move along a bone surface, digging grooves as the break down the bone matrixÃ¢â¬ (Marieb & Hoehn, 2006), transporting the calcium parts of it into the blood. Since there is a very little difference between nine and eleven milligrams of calcium, the body has to make sure the osteoclasts donÃ¢â¬â¢t overdo it. This is where calcitonin comes in. When there is an excess of calcium in the blood, calcitonin is secreted by the thyroid gland, and it activates your bonesÃ¢â¬â¢ osteoblasts. Osteoblasts are the opposite of the osteoclasts. It absorbs calcium from the blood and stimulates calcium salt deposit in the bone, balancing the calcium levels. This cycle goes on and on, perpetually trying to strike that balance. If too much calcium is released to the blood, the bones would be brittle and would break easily, and if too much calcium is absorbed, the heart would not be able to contract correctly, leading to many possible circulatory problems. Bone remodeling through hormonal control is not primarily for the benefit of the bones. Bone integrity is secondary to maintaining a normal amount of calcium in the blood. Bones are just storage space for ionic calcium to be used by the rest of the body. If it needs more, the bo dy will just keep demineralizing the bones until it has enough in the blood, likewise, if there is too much calcium, neither the blood nor the bones can keep all of it. Calcium salt deposits can form in many organs, thereby hampering the function of these organs such as blood vessels, kidneys, etc. There is another way wherein bones are remodeled. That is through mechanical stress. Gravity is a constant. It is always weighing the bones down. The
Sunday, November 17, 2019
History - King Ashoka - Research Paper Example King Ashoka ruled Indian subcontinent from 269 BC to 232 BC, until his death. In his early life, the king was known for his cruelty, but in the later period of his life, he became famous for his great edicts and acts. It was King Ashoka who played a major role in swelling Buddhism into the whole of Asia.1 Background of King Ashoka In 324 BC, the ruler of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta started out to surmount the weaker in the adjoining kingdoms. The motto was to enlarge his peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s territory. Chandragupta was an explorer by nature and used to travel in the surrounding lands to evaluate whether the probable defences can raise much struggle. Then on the basis of the evaluation, he would decide about the taking up of the war. He principally avoided those lands where the defence is strong. This way Chandragupta became the first king to rule over a united India. During the end of the century, Chandragupta handed over his reign to his son Bindusara. With the passage of time, the Bindusara became ill and decided to entrust the territory to one of his sons. As soon as the king announced his intention, a Ã¢â¬Å"silent sibling rivalryÃ¢â¬ started. The sons of Bindusara became the victims of an assassin and this way all the men fell until solely Ashoka stood tall. He was the only one to become successful in evading a murderer. In this way, Ashoka was crowned the new king in 274 BC. King Ashoka soon came to be known as a cruel king as he would administer capital punishment for even a minimum violation.2 On the desire to win rather than to acclaim demand, the king decided to continue with the efforts of his previous dwellers through demolishing the lands and kingdoms which previously remained unconquered. In this process of invasion and conquering, he was well aware of the fact that many innocent people have even lost their lives because of the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s order. Following all these disasters, Ashoka asked himself about the treasures that his people have won in the war that converted women and children to widows and orphans respectively. Soon after the realisation, the king became attentive towards his subjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ welfare. In this way, an era of internal progression and peace came to being. It was King Ashoka who persuaded and taught his people to respect and love all living creatures. Gradually, Ashoka became a Buddhist practitioner and built 84,000 stupas in his emperor for housing the GautamaÃ¢â¬â¢s sacred relics.3 Rise of Power of King Ashoka Ashoka grew to be a sharp and perfect warrior general and went on to command various brigades of the Mauryan army. Pertaining to his growing popularity, the elder brothers of Ashoka became impatient that their father Bindusara might prefer Ashoka to be the next emperor. His eldest brother Susima insisted Bindusara to send Ashoka to Taxilla, a city of unrest and trouble, governed by Susima himself. Ashoka successfully handled those situations and all the unrest ended without any fight. Th is popularity of Ashoka made Susima even more curious and he again persuaded their father to send Ashoka into exile. Ashoka was thus sent to Kalinga. After returning from Kalinga, he was again sent to Ujjain, another venue of violence. There he was injured and eventually treated by Buddhist nuns and monks. During this period, he first learnt Buddhist teachings. There he met Devi, a Buddhist nurse who took care of him, and later on Ashoka married her.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Antiglycation Studies of Pd(II)-Hydrazide Complexes Introduction Glycation is a non-enzymatic spontaneous reaction between sugars and coexisting protein followed by a complex cascade of reactions including dehydration, redox reaction and other rearrangements [1, 2] forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs) . Glycation reactions depend on the generation of reactive oxygen species by trace amounts of redox active metal ions  and on the degree and duration of hyperglycemia in vivo . Glycation damages the collagen and elastin throughout the body. It is generally accepted that accumulation of tissue AGEs together with enhanced oxidative stress has an important role in the progression of aging and diabetic complications including retinopathy, neuropathy, embryopathy, delayed healing of wounds and others [6-10]. The increase in diabetic complications is the major cause of increased morbidity and mortality rate that has enhanced considerably in the two decades . It has been estimated that the number of cases of DM will reach to 366 milli on by 2030 [12, 13] showing in fact a great challenge to healthcare systems . The failure of existing antidiabetic drugs are forcing researchers to find out new inhibitors of proteins responsible for glycation in order to have a long term and sustainable solution for management of diabetes and age-related diseases. Protein Glycation The protein glycation, also called Millard reaction, involves non-enzymatic coupling of proteins with reducing sugars eventually producing advanced end products. The glycation is a spontaneous reaction, which stimulates the degradation of proteins with modification of their structures and biological activity [1-3]. Various reducing sugars including glucose, lactose, fructose, xylose, deoxyribose and galactose may take part in protein glycation . Chemistry and Mechanism of Protein Glycation The protein glycation process initiates with the reaction of carbonyl (keto or aldehydic) group of reducing sugar with free amino group of protein forming a labile Schiff base 16. This is called early stage of glycation. The Schiff bases are then transformed through Amadori rearrangement into comparatively stable compounds known as Amadori products. At acidic pH or under oxidative conditions, the Amadori products or Schiff bases undergo degradation generating extremely reactive 1, 2-dicarbonyl compounds, such as methylglyoxal (Figure 94) 17-21. The formation of protein dicarbonyls through a protein enediol may generate superoxide radicals in the presence of transition metal ions and molecular oxygen 22. The superoxide radicals can be converted into most reactive hydroxyl radical via Fenton reaction 7. The reactive carbonyl compounds subsequently react with amino groups of neighboring proteins producing protein dicarbonyl compounds, which further contribute in the formation of various types of protein crosslinks and adducts called Ã¢â¬ËAdvanced Glycation End ProductsÃ¢â¬â¢ (AGEs). The autoxidation of Amadori products to AGEs is described as glycoxidation process. Figure 94. Structures of some reactive dicarbonyl glycation intermediates Advanced Glycation End Products The advanced glycation end products (AGEs) comprise a complex heterogeneous group of compounds produced primarily through the reaction of reactive carbonyls and proteins. AGEs demonstrate to have diverse molecular biological functions and structures 18, 23]. The amino, sulphydryl and guanidinum functional groups occurring in the intracellular and extracellular proteins are the main targets of reactive carbonyl compounds. Various AGEs have been recognized in different tissues that can be categorized into three major groups: fluorescent cross-linked AGEs (e.g. pentosidine and crossline), non-fluorescent cross-linked AGEs (e.g. alkyl formyl glycosyl pyrrole and arginine-lysine imidazole cross-links) and non-cross linked AGEs (e.g. pyrraline and N-(carboxylmethyl) lysine) 18. The structures of some AGEs are presented in Figure 95. Figure 95. Structures of selected advanced glycation end products Factors Affecting the Formation of AGEs In physiological environment, the generation of AGEs is a relatively slow process. Accordingly, the AGEs accumulation is dominant in long-lived structural proteins, for instance, tissue collagens and lens crystallins. The oxidative conditions are known to accelerate the formation of AGEs, which slows down under anaerobic environment . The transition metal ions may induce the auto-oxidation of sugars to produce keto aldehydes and hydrogen peroxide that speed up the formation of AGEs . The amount of AGEs formed is increased as a function of time and concentration of glucose and hence the AGEs formation is enhanced with aging and under diabetic conditions . Site Specificity of Glycation of Proteins Glycation of protein is considered as a specific reaction; however, it is less specific compared to enzymatic glycosylation. Glycation often takes place at specialized site in the protein, such as the substrate binding site (e.g. Arg-39) of RNase, the allosteric site (e.g. Ã ²V1) of hemoglobin, and the drug binding sites (e.g. Arg-410) on albumin . The specificity of glycation may be determined by endogenous ligands and the structure of protein especially an amino acid sequence within the protein. The specificity of protein glycation is usually affected by both basic and acidic neighboring groups , either via catalysis of Amadori rearrangement (the rate-limiting step of protein glycation), or via effecting pKa of amino group that contributes in enhancing its nucleophilicity and formation kinetics of Schiff bases. This shows that there is a variation in the respective rate and extent of glycation shown by amino groups in the protein. The anionic ligands also catalyze the pote ntial glycation of proteins at specific sites . Exogenous Sources of AGEs The formation of AGEs via Maillard reaction was originally described for physical and chemical changes occurring during heating of food . Beside the natural formation of AGEs inside the body, there are some exogenous sources of increased AGEs including diet enriched with AGEs and smoking. The extent of absorption of AGEs ingested with food is very small . However, there is a strong relationship of AGEs circulating in the human body with the AGEs ingested . It has been investigated that tobacco smoke increases the formation of AGEs on plasma proteins due to containing some products, which produce protein crosslinks and AGE-like fluorescence and mutagenicity . For example, the diarbonyl compounds, glyoxal and metbylglyoxal, are most likely to be present in cigarette smoke that act as mediators of AGE formation and formed by thermal decomposition of existing saccharides. Accordingly, the serum of diabetic smokers reveals enhanced levels of AGEs relative to diabetic non-smokers . Similarly, the smokers are more susceptible to incidence of cataract, cardiovascular and lungs diseases as compared to non-smokers due to smoke-mediated AGEs formation . Toxicity or Pathological Conditions Associated to Glycation and AGEs Formation The AGEs are more prone to proteolysis and degradation as compared to the original proteins. The accumulation of AGEs has toxic biological effects, causing disruption of many cellular processes leading to various pathologies. The AGEs as well as intermediate glycation products such as reactive carbonyls induce the production of free radicals in vitro and in vivo [35, 36] and hence increased oxidative stress . The glycation-mediated free radicals are the major cause of protein fragmentation as well as oxidation of lipids (lipid peroxidation) and nucleic acids . The reactive dicarbonyls have ability to bind with naturally active proteins of diverse physiology via intra- and inter-molecular cross linking resulting in deactivation of enzymes, transcription factors, membrane transporters and signaling components with eventual protein degradation and cytotoxicity [38-40]. The AGEs also bind to cell membrane receptors inducing signal cascades leading to inappropriate gene expressions and cellular activities . The elevated level of AGEs in tissues has a strong correlation with severity of diabetic complications [41, 42]. This is because of modification of enzymatic activity in multiple ways including binding of ligand, change in protein half life, increased membrane permeability, decreased binding ability of insulin to its receptors, increased atherogenicity of LPL and variation in the immunogenicity [43-45]. The main diabetic complications include impaired wound healing and the serious damage and failure of various vital organs such as kidneys (nephropathy), nerves (neuropathy), eyes (cataract, retinopathy), blood vessels (atherosclerosis) and heart (cardiomyopathy) [11, 34, 46, 47]. The AGEs formation is also associated to aging, AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease and other chronic disorders [17, 10, 48-50]. Natural Biological Defense Mechanism against Glycation and AGEs The human body presents a certain mechanism to inhibit the glycation of protein and resulting AGEs formation. For example, Ã ±-keto-glutaraldehyde dehydrogenase, a liver enzyme, has a capability to inactive 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), Arnadori-derived reactive intermediate and hence prevents the generation of AGEs . The other enzymes such as aldose reductase and glyoxylase system (I and II) can catalyze the deglycation of reactive intermediate methylglyoxal into D-lactase . Amadoriases are the group of enzymes found in Aspergillus, which catalyze the deglycation of Amadori products . Some NADPH-dependant exogenous enzymes such as aldose reductase and oxoaldehyde reductase that metabolize Ã ±-dicarbonyls, have the ability to reduce 3-DG and thus regulate the formation of AGEs . Similarly, different plasma amines may reduce AGEs formation through reaction with carbonyl groups of sugar and Amadori compounds . Antioxidants such as vitamin E and vitamin C, provide prote ction against glycation-mediated free radicals, whereas, ceruloplasmin and other transport proteins bind with transition metal ions such as Cu2+, preventing them to take part in glycoxidation reactions or autoxidative glycation . Inhibition of Protein Glycation and AGEs Several attempts have been made earlier to explore pharmacologically active antiglycating agents to prevent or slow down the production of AGEs . The major side effects associated with antiglycation therapy limit the use and necessitate the discovery of new inhibitors of glycation with reduced toxicity and long half life to be implicated for large time span. Currently, two therapeutic strategies are highly successful having great effectiveness against diabetic complications and normal aging; one is the inhibition of formation of AGEs and other is the breaking of already established AGEs cross-linkages . Promising Inhibitors of Glycation with Their Mechanism of Inhibition The antiglycating agents such as aminoguanidine, rutin, antioxidants, aspirin and other AGEs breakers have been examined extensively and received great interest. The structures of some potential antiglycating agents are depicted in Figure 96. Aminoguanidine Aminoguanidine is a derivative of hydrazine that inhibits the generation of AGEs and glucose-derived collagen cross-links during in vitro studies . Aminoguanidine does not act on already formed AGEs but it reacts with reactive Amadori products such as 3-deoxyglucosone preventing additional rearrangements and intermediates crosslinking . In addition, aminoguanidine is a free radical scavenger that contributes in reducing oxidative stress . The treatment of diabetic animal models with aminoguanidine reduces AGEs accumulation, kidney lesions, albuminuria and long-term diabetic complications including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy . Aminoguanidine also exerts positive effect on the speed of nerve conduction . Aminoguanidine therapy is limited by serious toxic effects attributable to high reactivity, subliminal concentrations and rapid renal clearance. The human trials with aminoguanidine experience vasculitis (inflammation of lymph or blood vessel), liver fu nction abnormalities  and less frequent flu-like symptoms, nausea and headache . Figure 96. Structures of some potential antiglycating agents Aspirin Acetylsalicylic acid commonly known as aspirin is an analgesic has well known analgesic drug that also shows the preventive action against formation of cataract under diabetic conditions. Aspirin may limit the sugar-mediated formation of Amadori products by acetylation of free amino residues of proteins. Aspirin also stops the crosslinking of tendon in rat tail in vitro through inhibition of glycoxidation. Furthermore, aspirin is a free radical scavenger . However, the use of aspirin is unlikely in controlling late diabetic complications because of some serious gastrointestinal side effects . Rutin Rutin is a common flavonoid of vegetables and fruits that modulates the AGEs generation in vitro. The flavonoids including rutin that contain vicinal dihydroxyl groups have established their significant role as antiglycating agents. The mechanism of inhibition by rutin is suggested to involve the trapping of amino groups in proteins at early stage of glycation, especially in ketoamine formation, by rutin metabolites like keto-quinone intermediates. Rutin has shown significant inhibitory effect against hemoglobin glycation and it is more efficient compared to aminoguanidine . Antioxidnats Since non-enzymatic glycation of protein is significantly accelerated by excessive generation of free radicals, the antioxidants and other free radical scavengers are expected to inhibit the process of glycation . For example, vitamin E has been reported to appreciably reduce the glycation of hemoglobin . The compounds that exhibit both antioxidant and antiglycation properties e.g. aminosalicylic acid, can protect endothelial cells with better efficacy than aminoguanidine against adverse effects of glycation and high glucose levels in vitro . Similarly, carnosine that is a naural antioxidant and antiglycating agent, inhibits sugar-induced cross-linking of proteins by reaction with methylglyoxal and also sequesters metal ions (e.g. copper and zinc). Carnosine has shown its role in the treatment of cataracts and other diseases . The glycation-derived free radicals generation may be reduced by chelation of transition metal ions, which are responsible for monosaccharide a utoxidation. For instance, the metal chelator, diethylenetriamine penta acetic acid has shown the inhibition of glucose autoxidation [68, 69]. AGE-Breakers AGE-breakers are the compounds, which remove AGEs cross-links through breakdown of Ã ±-dicarbonyl bonds in glucose-derived cross-links of proteins . However, the exact mechanism of inhibition for cross-link breaking is unclear so far. N-phenacylthiazolium bromide (PTB) and its chloride form, alagebrium chloride (ALT-711) are the examples of AGE-breakers. It has been demonstrated that the increased arterial stiffness related to diabetes is successfully reversed through a short treatment with AGE-breaker, ALT-711. The cardiovascular stiffness related to normal aging process can also be reduced by ALT-711. For example, the treatment of normal aged dogs with AGE cross-link breaker has shown noticeable decrease in stiffness of left ventricle chamber . The clinical trial studies on diabetic humans, dogs and other animals indicate the potentially promising use of antiglycation therapy in near future to prevent diabetic complications and other diseases related to protein glycation .
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
In the last couple of years there has been increasing amount of American soldiers being relived from active duty, being sent back to their family and friends. As these men and woman return from war they struggle to reintegrate into their civilian lives. Such strains as Post Traumatic stress disorder and very few job opportunities pose a problem. Eddie Ray Routh a former solider had many strains in his life, which eventually lead him to murder American hero Chris Kyle and Chad Littlefield. Using criminologist Robert AgnewÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"General Strain TheoryÃ¢â¬ , I will explain the motives behind these murders. Former navy seal Chris Kyle was known as, Ã¢â¬Å"one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s deadliest military snipers (Fernandez & Schwirtz, 2013).Ã¢â¬ Mr. Kyle earned his reputation in Iraq fighting the war on terror killing an estimated 150 Iraqi insurgents. Throughout his time as navy seal he earned two silver stars and five bronze stars for acts of valor. Once Mr. Kyle retired from the military he wrote a book called the, Ã¢â¬Å"American sniper: the Autobiography of the most lethal Sniper in U.S. Military HistoryÃ¢â¬ . This c...
Sunday, November 10, 2019
1. Introduction Consumers influence each other in several ways: they exchange information through communication, seek or give opinions and copy each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour. Researchers recognise the giving and seeking of opinions as one of the most important word-of-mouth influences on brand and product choice (Bristor, 1990 and Weimann, 1994). Especially in fashion, social groups and opinion leaders influence product and brand evaluations (Amaldoss and Jain 2008). Fashion consumers often refer to fashion opinion leaders who they desire to be alike. The Internet and social media speeded up the way of communication within reference groups and made it possible to share interests without physical interaction. The following essay will outline an overview of fashion opinion leaders and reference groups before giving a better understanding of how fashion retailers make use of fashion opinion leaders in order to influence customers. 2. Reference groups and reference group influences Consumers use several sources when they seek information or opinions on decisions; informal and social (Goldsmith and Clark 2008). This aspect of consumer behaviour is described as opinion-leadership-opinion-seeking, word-of-mouth, buzz or social communication (Goldsmith and Clark 2008). This means that consumers refer to something or someone when they seek information and clears the way for the term referential or reference group. Solomon and Rabolt (2009) define Humans as social animals that try to fit into certain groups, please others and take Ã¢â¬Å"cues about how to behave by observing the actions of those aroundÃ¢â¬ (p. 422) them. A group can simply be defined as two or more people sharing common goals and interests. All members of a group interact by certain patterns, frameworks and networks. A group member must therefore be perceptible to belonging to this group. Groups can be primary (family), secondary (professions), formal (churches), or informal (certain group of frie nds). Belonging to a herd or group, makes consumers want to identify themselves psychologically and physically with desirable individuals of this group. Thus, an individual or group conceived of having significant relevance upon an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s sociological attributes, such as evaluations, characteristics, aspirations, or behaviour is defined as reference group (Park et al, 1977). As stated by Holton (2004), Merton hypothesized that individuals compare themselves with reference groups of people who occupy the social role to which the individual aspires. Hence, the group becomes the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s frame of reference and influences his ideas and decisions. Reference group influence can occur in different ways. According to Solomon and Rabolt (2009), group members of reference groups can be influenced informational, utilitarian or value-expressive. Furthermore, individuals are also mostly influenced by normative referents of the group, such as parents, teachers, or peers (Childers and Rao, 1992). There are also so called aspirational groups of which individuals aspire to be a member of. This phenomenon can be considered as comparative referents, such as public opinion leaders or celebrities. Belonging to a group, aspirational or not, can influence the buying behaviour of individuals, and decisions are often based on what the group members please in order to be accepted (Joel et al 1972). According to the above, a reference group is as an individual or group that significantly influences an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour (Bearden and Etzel 1982). 2.1 Online referential groups and virtual consumption communities Literature mostly concentrates on face-to-face interaction within reference groups on a regular basis or on aspirational groups without direct interaction (Pentina et al, 2008). However, Sheth and Parvatiyar (1995) stated that it is not directly necessary to have physical contact and interactions with members of a group in order to refer to it. More common forms of reference groups are online reference groups, which only exist in the World Wide Web. Within the age of the Internet, arising social media networks and communities it is possible to share interests with people who the individual never met personally (Solomon and Rabolt, 2009). A virtual community of consumption is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a collection of people whose online interactions are based on shared enthusiasm for and knowledge of a specific consumption activityÃ¢â¬ (Solomon and Rabolt, 2009, p 426), such as fashion for instance. In the concept of virtual communities any group of people can share common bonds, without being dependent on physical interaction and common graphic location (McDonough, 1992). But the issue of relationships between each other still lies at the heart of virtual communities (Farquhar and Rowley, 2006). Although online sharing of interests takes place on blog websites, social media platforms, like facebook or twitter or sharing services like as Pinterest, members build up relationships when sharing. On facebook, for instance, members liking other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s post in certain theme groups and commenting on those can explain a relationship. Solomon and Rabolt (2009) state that the impact of virtual communities on individualÃ¢â¬â¢s product preferences and decisions are huge. Because of that, an online referential group can be considered as consumers who write about their opinions towards certain topics, seek information, publish recommendations, and post products or services. 2.1.1 Online referential groups in fashion and fashion bloggers Fashion and apparel shopping are seen as the most popular discussion topic among social networks (Thomas et al, 2007). In fashion, online communities are seen mostly through social media emergence such as blogs or facebook groups. Fashion blogs are mostly run by one person who writes or Ã¢â¬Å"blogsÃ¢â¬ about different products, occasions or events within the fashion industry. The community is then formed by readers of the blog, so called Ã¢â¬Å"followersÃ¢â¬ , that read the stories or comment on it. With gaining popularity bloggers are also able to gain money by advertising on their blog websites. According to the Telegraph, the most popular bloggers make up to Ã £10,000 a month in advertising (Telegraph, 28/10/2012). Meanwhile, also fashion retailers look into the blogging business. For retailers the building up of social media groups could help them to gain direct feedback from consumers while monitoring discussions in referential groups online. Burberry for example not only has its own group on facebook, but also launched a blog, showing images of people wearing their trench coats (The Art of Trench, 28/10/2012). 3. Fashion opinion leadership Referring to an opinion leader is one of the social or informal sources of decision and opinions seeking, named by Goldsmith and Clark (2008) in reference group behaviour. A person who has knowledge about a certain product and whose advice is seriously taken by others explains opinion leadership. An opinion leader or influential is a person, who is frequently able to influence attitudes and behaviour of others (Solomon and Rabolt 2009) Further, it can be explicated by the desire of leaders to distinguish themselves from followers, while followers pursue the countervailing desire to assimilate with leaders (Amaldoss and Jain 2008). Feick and Price (1987, p. 95) state that opinion leaders are more likely in product categories in which association with the product provides a form of self-expression. Fashionable clothing embodies information about the personality and status of its wearer to other people (Dodd et al, 2000). However, Amaldoss and Jain (2008) argue that in fashion, this occurrence is mostly seen within the purchasing of luxury clothing and accessories. There are several types of opinion leaders that can be observed in fashion. Firstly, some heavy consumers of fashion clothing who become extremely interested and preoccupied with it, so that their interest, knowledge and experience qualifies them to become fashion opinion leaders for others (Goldsmith, 2000). Today, these types of fashion opinion leaders occur mostly online, such as fashion bloggers. Secondly there are people who are in the public spotlight, such as celebrities. Celebrities mostly look adorable and therefore individuals follow their look because they desire to assimilate with this leader (Amaldoss and Jain 2008). But sometimes celebrities are being dressed up by personal outfitters in order to create, perform and accomplish a certain image without actually having the interest or knowledge in the area. This shows that also the perception that individuals have about a person can make the person an opinion leader. Of course, there are also people whose profession is related to fashion that can be an opinion leader for individuals, such as designers, fashion photographers, models or fashion magazines. A recent study on Mintel shows that fashion content in celebrity, lifestyle or fashion magazines, newspaper supplements and makeover shows has a direct influence on the shopping behaviour of 2 Ã¢â¬â 3.5 million people. Especially women are most likely influenced by such coverage (Mintel, Fashion Online, 29/10/12). As the fashion magazine example illustrates, an opinion leader does not have to be only one person, it can also be a company or an organisation. 3.1 Fashion opinion seeking Ã¢â¬Å"Opinion seeking is the behavioural counterpart to opinion leadershipÃ¢â¬ (Goldsmith and Clark, 2008, p 309) and is important to the diffusion of new fashion products because it can spread word-of-mouth about the advice gotten from opinion leaders. Unlike opinion leaders, opinion seekers do not have the same knowledge of and interest in a product category than opinion leaders in this segment do (Goldsmith, 2000). Opinion leaders do also absorb risk (Solomon and Rabolt, 2009) for opinion seekers when buying a new product. Therefore, Opinion seekers consider opinion leaders as appropriate sources for information and advice (Bertrandias and Goldsmith, 2006). Nevertheless, opinion seekers are very important to opinion leaders because they act on the information they got from the opinion leader. The fashion industry is one of the industries that show the most frequent changes in trends and styles. When consumers determine on buying a new product they might ask or even search for information about the desired fashionable product. Because of that they often make use of informal or social sources when seeking information (Goldsmith and Clark 2008) or opinions on decisions from fashion opinion leaders in any form. Consumers can seek for an opinion through various types of social communication, word-of-moth recommendations, observing opinion leaders, researching a subject or buzz (Goldsmith and Clark 2008). In an online perspective, consumers can use social network communities as sources for apparel shopping. 3.1.1 The process within referential groups in fashion: coherence of opinion leaders and opinion seekers The basis of forming referential groups in virtual communities is the process combining interpersonal connectivity, social enhancement and sharing of information. Dholakia and Bagozzi (2004) state that interpersonal connectivity between members is important to retain social benefits of participating online. In fashion opinion leadership and fashion opinion seeking, the process is based on the social need of each other, shown in figure 3. Figure 1: The process of fashion influence between fashion opinion leaders and fashion opinion seekers in referential groups, adapted from Goldsmith and Clark, 2008 This process can especially be observed in online communities where opinion leaders post pictures of themselves wearing a new product. Several opinion seekers may like the product and give a positive feedback to the opinion leader or even share it with others, which shows symbolic validation to the opinion leader and creates a loop. 3.1.2 Victoria Beckham as fashion opinion leader for the Birkin Bag A good example for an opinion leader in fashion is Victoria Beckham. The ex-singer, designer and wife of English football star David Beckham is referred to being an A-list celebrity in the public spotlight. She is not only famous for designing fashion and wearing high-heels, but also for her collection of the Hermes Birkin Bag. The Birkin Bag is a hand-made handbag designed by the luxury fashion brand HermÃ ¨s and is estimated to start at $6,000 (Branch, 2004). The bag is often seen adorning the arm of celebrities and has become a cult fashion phenomenon (Tonello, 2009) and is an example of a fashion product that gained high popularity. Its brand, HermÃ ©s limited its production, to limit its accessibility. Victoria Beckham is presumed of possessing the largest collection of Birkins (Fashionthroughtravel, 26/10/12). The following figure shows an example of her and her Birkin Bag collection. It can be the fact that Victoria Beckham is popular and has a lot of people referring to her what made the bag so famous and desirable. Followers or referents to her then adopted the product, Birkin Bag. The more leaders adopt a product, the higher value is crated among its followers. Ã¢â¬Å"Thus, followers are buying the product for its reference group effectÃ¢â¬ (Almadoss and Jain, 2008, p 935). Therefore individuals that look up to their opinion leader may want to follow his choices (Amaldoss and Jain, 2008). As being outlined before, fashion clothing transmits a certain personality and status of its wearer to other people (Dodd et al, 2000) and is also a form of self-expression. Wearing certain trends or accessories like a Birkin Bag show commitment to a certain image of being wealthy, belonging to a higher class or having a sure feeling of trends and fashion. 4. Why and how marketers make use fashion opinion leaders The innovator theory by Rogers (1962) shows that consumer attitudes towards purchasing products can be classified into five categories. The following figure shows RogersÃ¢â¬â¢s adoption of innovations curve. Depending on how quick consumers are to purchase they are either: 1. Innovators or Designers (2.5%), 2. Fashion opinion leaders or early adapters (13.5%), 3. Early majority (34%), 4. Late majority (34%), 5. Laggards or late adapters (16%) Directly after innovators or designers of the product, opinion leaders come second in purchasing or adapting this trend. According to the theory, opinion leaders are the key to product diffusion (Mituse, 05/11/12). Although innovators and opinion leaders combined account for no more than 16% of the overall market, a company can try to target opinion leaders already in early product stages and see if product diffusion will spread to the early and late majorities (Mituse, 05/11/12). Following RogersÃ¢â¬â¢s theory and transferring it to the fashion industry, it can be argued that it is from extreme importance for fashion retailers to get opinion leaders on board in order to establish their designs and products within the market. Thus, the reasons why fashion opinion leaders influence others by sharing information are extremely important for companies (Bertandias and Goldsmith, 2006). Fashion retailers make use of Ã¢â¬Å"key opinion leadersÃ¢â¬ to influence the purchasing behaviour of consumers through their perceived position of authority. Therefore employing opinion leaders as advertising mascots or models in commercials or adverts, as seen in the figure below, is common in fashion retail. Figure 4: Fashion opinion leaders advertising for retailer Furthermore, collaborations with opinion leaders that are famous for their profession are common in fashion retail. This can be underlined by collaborations between mass retailer h&m and designers like Donatella Versace (2012) and Jimmy Choo (2009) or online premium retailer NET-A-PORTER and Karl Lagerfeld, as figure 5 illustrates below. Figure 5: Collaborations of retailers and designers as fashion opinion leaders Nevertheless, marketing products or brands effectively today requires tools that reach beyond normal advertising methods: by prior targeting fashion opinion leaders, marketers are able to engage positive word-of-mouth behaviours (Bertrandias and Goldsmith, 2006) about their products. According to Chaney (2001), opinion leaders act as human information processors and are an attractive marketing tool as part of the overall communication strategy. Influences by fashion opinion leaders are not only verbal, but also visual (Bertrandias and Goldsmith, 2006). In fashion, a product has to be desirable to a consumer. If no one is seen with a certain product, most consumers donÃ¢â¬â¢t see a reason in buying it. If someone famous is seen with the product, the probability of referential groups buying or wanting the product as well increases. When word-of-mouth networks are generated around opinion leaders, it can pave the way for spreading news or opinions about certain fashion products. Thus, it is beneficial to address fashion-marketing communications directly to opinion leaders of this segment in order to speed up advertising messages. Therefore, advertisers may address womenswear or accessories fashion campaigns directly to opinion leaders like celebrities or high-fashion magazines. Because of the important role they may have in influencing markets, advertisers may also hand out free fashion product samples to opinion leaders (Yahoo, 29/10/12). Handing out such testimonials, which often embody free designer clothes, handbags or shoes, retailers encourage opinion leaders to wear the brand in order to influence reference groups around the opinion leader visually. Outfitting celebrities that have public appearance for free, mostly sees this occurrence, exemplarily stated in the below figure. Figure 6: Celebrities on the red carpet, adapted from ELLE By doing so, the marketer uses the position of the opinion leader to carry and break down its message to influence its relevant target group. Well-established magazines such as Vogue, Elle or Glamour can also be expected to have high influences on fashion decisions of opinion seekers. A fashion magazine even has the ability to cluster a whole group of fashion opinion leaders together: celebrities, photographers, editors, industry experts and fashion journalists. This might be a reason why opinion seekers use those magazines as information source when seeking for an opinion. Thus, advertising in fashion magazines, outfitting celebrities, or using fashion opinion leaders in adverts can influence target groups in their purchasing behaviour. 5. Conclusion Ã¢â¬ËReference groups in fashionÃ¢â¬â¢ are defined as fashion consumers who are heavy fashion users and highly involved in seeking or reflecting opinions about fashion brands and products with others who share the same interests. Further, it is differentiated between fashion opinion leaders and fashion opinion seekers. As being part of a referential group, opinion leaders and opinion seekers are positively related to each other, as the one canÃ¢â¬â¢t exist without the other. Today, fashion opinion leaders are often classified as celebrities, people standing in the public spotlight, magazines, or bloggers, surrounded by networks of reference groups that admire to be like them. Especially in the age of social media it has become more important to marketers to understand the process of providing, sharing and seeking of information between fashion opinion leaders and opinion seekers. Therefore opinion leaders are seen to be an important marketing tool in fashion as they are able to influence reference groups in their product or brand purchasing decisions. List of references: Amaldoss, W. & Jain, S. (2008), Ã¢â¬ËTrading Up: A Strategic Analysis of Reference Group EffectsÃ¢â¬â¢, Marketing Science, pp. 932-942 Bearden, W. & Etzel, M. (1982), Ã¢â¬ËReference Group Influence on Product and Brand Purchase DecisionsÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Consumer Research, pp. 183-194 Bertrandias, L. & Goldsmith, R. (2006), Ã¢â¬ËSome psychological motivations for fashion opinion leadership and fashion opinion seekingÃ¢â¬â¢, Jornal of Fashion Marketing an Management, Vol 10, Issue 1, pp. 25-40 Branch, S. (2004), Ã¢â¬ËHermÃ ¨sÃ¢â¬â¢s jelly acheÃ¢â¬â¢, Wall Street Journal Bristor, J.M. (1990), Ã¢â¬ËEnhanced explanations of word of mouth communications: the power of relationshipsÃ¢â¬â¢, in Hirschman, E.C. (Ed.), Research in Consumer Behavior, 4th ed., JAI Press, Greenwich, CT, pp. 51-83. Chaney, I. (2001), Ã¢â¬ËOpinion leaders as a segment for marketing communicationsÃ¢â¬â¢, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, p. 302 Childers, T. & Rao, A. (1992), Ã¢â¬ËThe Influence of Familial and peer-based Reference Groups on Consumer DecisionsÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Consumer Research, pp. 198-211 Dholakia, U. & Bagozzi, R. (2004), Ã¢â¬ËA socialinfluence model of consumer participation in network- and small-group-based virtual communities Ã¢â¬Ë, International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 21, Issue3, pp. 241-263 Dodd, C., Clarke, I., Baron, S. & Houston, V. (2000), Ã¢â¬ËLooking the part: identity, meaning and culture in clothing purchasing Ã¢â¬â theoretical considerationsÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 41-48 Farquhar, J. & Rowley, J. (2006), Ã¢â¬ËRelationships and online consumer communitiesÃ¢â¬â¢, Business Process Management Journal, pp. 162- 175 Feick, L. & Price, L. (1987), `The market maven: a diffuser of marketplace informationÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 51, p. 95. Goldsmith, R. & Clark, R. (2008), Ã¢â¬ËAn analysis of factors affecting fashion opinion leadership and fashion opinion seekingÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, pp. 308-322 Goldsmith, R. (2000), Ã¢â¬ËCharacteristics of the heavy user of fashionable clothingÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practise, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 1-9 Holton, G. (2004), Ã¢â¬Å¾Robert K Merton Ã¢â¬â Biographical MemoriesÃ¢â¬Å", Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 148 (4) p 506Ã¢â¬â517 Ã¢â¬ËJetsetsocialitÃ © Ã¢â¬Ë, Jetsetjunior, Accessed: 26th October 2012, Source: from: http://www.jetsetsocialite.com/2008/10/19/the-hermes-birkin-bag-buying-guide/ McDonough M. (1997), Ã¢â¬Å"Frequently asked questions: virtual communitiesÃ¢â¬ , internal paper prepared for virtual community hosts at the Thomson Viral Community laboratory Ã¢â¬ËMintel OxygenÃ¢â¬â¢, Fashion Online Ã¢â¬â UK Ã¢â¬â March 2012, Report Brochure, Accessed: 29th October 2012, Source: from: http://ezproxy1.hw.ac.uk:2840/display/590053/?highlight=true Ã¢â¬ËMituseÃ¢â¬â¢, Accessed: 06/11/12, Source: from: http://www.mitsue.co.jp/english/case/concept/02.html?&lang=en_us&output=json& session-id=fae8bc3e4d3cd76794dcbdbd8fbff715 Park, H. & Cho, H. (2012), Ã¢â¬ËSocial network online communities: information sources for apparel shoppingÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 29, p. 400 Parvatiyar, A. & Sheth J., (1995), Ã¢â¬ËRelationship Marketing in Consumer Markets: Antecedents and ConsequencesÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, vol.23, No.4, pp. 255-271 Pentina, I., Prybutok, V., Zhang, X., (2008), Ã¢â¬ËTHE ROLE OF VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES AS SHOPPING REFERENCE GROUPSÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, pp. 114-136 Pierce, S. Ã¢â¬ËYahooÃ¢â¬â¢, Clothing, Accessed 29th October 2012, Source: from http://news.yahoo.com/why-celebs-free-designer-clothing-221500536.html Rogers, E. Ã¢â¬ËMituseÃ¢â¬â¢, Accessed 28th October 2012, Source: from http://www.mitsue.co.jp/english/case/concept/02.html Rogers, E. (1962), Communication of Innovations, 2nd ed., The Free Press, New York Solomon, M. & Rabolt, N. (2009), Consumer Behaviour in Fashion, 2nd ed., Prentice Hall Salter, J. (2012), Ã¢â¬Ë The TelegraphÃ¢â¬â¢, Fashion, Accessed 28th October 2012, Source: from http://fashion.telegraph.co.uk/beauty/news-features/TMG7037668/Britains-best-fashion-bloggers.html
Friday, November 8, 2019
How to Make a Smoke Bomb With Ping Pong Balls Its easy to make a smoke bomb! You dont even need any fancy chemicals, like potassium nitrate or ammonium nitrate. Heres how to use a ping pong ball to make a smoke bomb.Ã Ping Pong Smoke Bomb Materials Each ping pong ball makes one smoke bomb. You will need: ping pong ballaluminum foilpencillighter Assemble the Smoke Bomb Start by poking a hole in one side of a ping pong ball.Keep working at the hole until its large enough to insert the pencil into it. Put the pencil in the ping pong ball.Wrap aluminum foil around the ball and the pencil. Dont completely cover the pencil. What youre doing is making a nozzle for the smoke, so work an inch or two up the pencil.Remove the pencil. The ball plus foil is your finished smoke bomb!Take the smoke bomb outside and use a lighter flame to heat the foil on the bottom of the ping pong ball until smoke starts to come out of the nozzle. Set the smoke bomb on the ground and enjoy the show! How a Ping Pong Smoke Bomb Works You may not have realized it, but ping pong balls are made of nitrocellulose the same chemical used to make flash paper and the one that causes old movie reels to burst into flame. Ping pong balls are stable, though, and wont burn unless a heat source is applied. You may wish to burn a ping pong ball to see whats happening inside the smoke bomb: How To Burn a Ping Pong Ball (safely) If you burn a ping pong ball in the open, it produces some smoke, but not as much as youll get if you cover the ball to control the amount of oxygen and thus the rate of combustion. Making a spout or nozzle to control the incoming air and outgoing smoke also improves the smoke bomb. Disclaimer: Please be advised that the content provided by our website is for EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY. Fireworks and the chemicals contained within them are dangerous and should always be handled with care and used with common sense. By using this website you acknowledge that ThoughtCo., its parent About, Inc. (a/k/a Dotdash), and IAC/InterActive Corp. shall have no liability for any damages, injuries, or other legal matters caused by your use of fireworks or the knowledge or application of the information on this website. The providers of this content specifically do not condone using fireworks for disruptive, unsafe, illegal, or destructive purposes. You are responsible for following all applicable laws before using or applying the information provided on this website.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Death & Death Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller Essays - Free Essays Death & Death Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller Death is such a contradicting situation. It is always a sad event, but in some perspectives it may or may not be a joyous event. Not to say that death should be celebrated, just to point out that life may have been a more dramatic experience. For my first novel in G.T. I read Death of a Salesman, a play written by Arthur Miller. Arthur Miller was born in 1915, in New York City. His parents were well To do until the depression. He attended college where he won three drama prizes. Death of a Salesman was his their Broadway play. The play Death of A Salesman was an extremely confusing play, it was a dialogue between a family of people. There were numerous flashbacks used to illustrate things that happened in the past. The overall purposeof the flashbacks was to describe the situation that Willy Loman, the main character, was dillusional. I feel that in this the characters of this book are well described. The author describes Willy was an average man with a somewhat normal life. His wife Linda is loving and like any woman she sticks by her man. Happy and Biff are Willy and Lindas sons. The play takes place when Biff and Happy come to visit their parentsfor a couple of days. The play is reality that most books and movies do not display. It shows an average american family struggling to get by. In the play it is apparent that the characters have strong dreams and aspirations. It is also obvious that they have not yet succeeded in accomplishing them. Quite a few events happen that prove, no matter how hard someone tries, in society things change and it is hard to reach full potential. The authors of the play puts more reality into the central theme of the play. People get old and begin to do odd things such as talk to people that are not there or people that only exists in their minds. Throughout the play Willy would have conversations with people that he believed were there, but they really were not. Willy strived to be the best and if he was not successful, then things were not good enough. He was ashamed that his money supply was not sufficentenough to support his family. The theme changed throughout the course of the book. I believe the point that he was trying to emphasize was to never give up and all the barriers in the way will be broken. This play has taught me the lesson that life is how one individual person decides to make it out to be. The plays point of view was from two or more characters having a conversation. The play suggested that in life that certain things have to be completed in life before death is bestowed upon someone. In this the example was that Willy had to resolve his long term bad relationship with his son, Biff. The play will help me in my life because like I have stated that the story or the plot may be fictional, but it could happen in someones life. In other words it is reality. The word usage for the dialect were elementary and some untasteful words were expressed. For example the word fool is used several times. Other untasteful words are used, but they are to untasteful to mention. The stage directions had a larger more descriptive vocabulary. For example, when describing the house it says We are aware of towering, angular shapes behind surrounding it on all sides. The movie that this play reminds me of would have to be a small made for television only movie called The Red Door. It is a movie about a family of six, a mother, a father son, and three daughters. The mother, Mary works at a shopping center and the whole theme of the movie is trying to get past the red door at the local restraunt. In the play and the movie all of the characters are the average family and they thrive to succeed in life. The characters in the movie all correspond with the characters of the play.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Name Fake News - Essay Example During one episode on the Television, the narrator states that one of the lead characters of the Lancaster Police was arrested by the "Lancaster County Police" but in the real sense there is reportedly no such law enforcement agency in Lancaster. This is name fake news that deceived the innocent public. The name fake news genre is believed to have dated back to the 1960s and it was used widely in radio news, film production and in televisions. Fake names were used to portray the real people so as hide the identities of the people and enhance the understanding of the target group (Gibson 2012). It is important to highlight here that name fake news to a greater extent damages our understanding of current events. This is true because it gives the public falsified information of things that are untrue and if the public believes in the false information, it may lead to the destruction of human dignity, defamation, and some loss may also occur. If for example, a news anchor during broadcas ting reveals the fake name of a product that is to be sold in the market having different price to the real price of the original products. Due to the false information, the innocent buyer will not only spend more than the actual price of the product but also purchase a wrong item that was not intended (Gibson 2012). Fake name news can also damage our understanding of current events in publications such as books and newspapers. If an author in his publication indicates that a particular town or city exists or particular people existed having various activities such as the one that appeared in the recent Moscow News with claims that a city existed and it was full of sins done by the citizens. This kind of negative information may damage the peoples view on how they consider a particular group from a certain region while in neither reality the city does not exist nor the purported Television show that gave the false news (Burchard 2012).
Friday, November 1, 2019
Case study in business at college level - Essay Example Penetration or predatory pricing is the opposite and means setting a low price in anticipation of future cost declines in order to grab a bigger share of a growing market (Bagozzi 54-55). Price skimming works for the products Gadgets2u.com sells (line 58). Predatory pricing works best once the level of sales starts to decline, with the effect of discouraging any potential competitors. 2.a) Gadgets2u.com's problem (lines 44-46) is not in the structure but in the lines of communication between project teams and staff (lines 39-43). This is common in fast-growing e-businesses and the solution is "not to automatically transform the flat structure into a formal hierarchy, but to make the hyperarchical system efficient by making it easier for project team leaders to communicate with each other, collect and evaluate the relevant information, and make decisions" (Amor 48). Gadgets2u.com's matrix structure is hyperarchical1 and characterized by flexibility, fast information flow, and quick decision-making. Improving communication efficiency will make the structure scalable or adaptable to growth. 2.b) Homeworking (or telecommuting) is done by five employees (line 138), but if their productivity is low and having them in the office will improve it, or if they have new assignments where their office presence is needed, then bringing them to the office is acceptable. Otherwise, this will backfire. The employee(s) may resign or be demotivated, leading to lower productivity and worse problems. Homeworking is a good way to keep and motivate good employees, especially creative types or those with health problems or multiple roles2 (family or community). Good employees are satisfied if they know they are more productive working from home and their contributions to the company's success are recognized. It is assumed that workers are given full management support and resources (communication lines, clear assignments, etc.). The appraisal system (line 137) will give Tom and the management more information on this matter (if homeworking is productive, motivating, or not). 3.a) Holding too much stock is a problem because stock costs money and space (which costs something and is therefore also money). Declining future sales may affect profits. Holding too little stock is also a problem because if the goods sell very well, the market will be frustrated with the company. Market satisfaction seems to be a problem lately (lines 119-120), although distribution is the main reason for that. 3.b) Just-in-time (JIT) stock control, currently under study by the management (lines 98-99) is one of the ultimate goals of any e-business (Amor 49). JIT is a system where inflow and outflow of stocks are balanced, or where the company has almost exactly the amount of goods that the market wants to buy (Germane 192). JIT requires near-perfect coordination between Gadgets2u.com and the suppliers, and demands accurate knowledge of market behavior which, because it is very dynamic, is difficult to predict. This ideal of