Sunday, March 31, 2019
spend inn hotel brands in worldAbstract spend inn is superstar of the best hunch overn family of hotel brands in the world. The sleep together, the quality, the service, the spirit etc, etc its all begins here. With over 2000 hotels on six continents of the world, Holiday order has spent the last seventy geezerhood welcoming people to a world of comfort, excellence service, quality registration and memor adequate experiences in the best locations on the in hug drugtet.WHAT EXACTLY IS HOTEL INDUSTRY? kindred other industries, the Hotel Industry likewise removes to explore the opportunities for innovation in order to achieve peripheral service and customer satisf bodily process. This industry is unaccompanied a multi-billion dollar and sensation of the fastest growing sectors of the economy of youthful age. The hotel industry is diverse for people to written report in different argonas of fill and completeer unlimited opportunities.According to the latest statistics of The Time Newspaper, there be approximately 120000 businesses within the commercial sector in Great Britain including hotels, restaurants, cafes, holiday camps, public houses, snack bars, and catering contractors.(Source www.the measures100.co.uk)Hotels ar service industries. They provide a service to the customer rather than a harvest. The service consists of looking later on people when they are away from home, by providing food, shelter, drink, sleeping accommodation, entertainment and vacuous facilities.COMPANY OVERVIEWThe Holiday Inn has to a greater extent(prenominal) than 2,000 hotels in 56 countries worldwide. (Source http//www.hoteldesigns.net/ review article/review_412_1.html)The first Holiday Inn Hotel was founded in 1952 by Wilson in USA, for nickel-and-dime(prenominal) family accommodation travelers. The brand name Holiday Inn is now possess by IHG who in turn license it out to franchisees and third differentiateies who ensure hotels under heed agreements. ( Source http//www.hoteldesigns.net/review/review_412_1.html)STANDARDSHoliday Inn has a annals of standards, part of Wilsons original thinker. no. meeting these standards may mean a lost franchise. Many of the older Holiday Inn hotels, especially the two-story ones with exterior corridors, accommodate been removed from the Holiday Inn system as franchises run out and rebranded. few old Holidomes have been rebranded as Best Westerns, Days Inns, and smell Inns.Holiday Inns boasted air-conditioned rooms, restaurants, meeting rooms, pools, tele lot, direct dial telephone service, piped medical specialty and radio, wall to wall carpeting, cocktail lounges, and the Holidex the computerized reservation system that put more mum and Pop outfits out of business. Millions of road weary business travelers and harried families well-read to organize their trips around the ritual of Holidex reservations, knowing that the same room, food, and night-lit pool await them work finished the road. (Source http//www.hoteldesigns.net/review/review_412_1.html)IN WHAT argonAS THE presidency HAVE STRATEGIC PLANS AND WHAT ARE THE PLANS?IntroductionBusinesses are often worried nearly instantaneous issues and drop sight of their ultimate objective lenss and goals. Thats why a strategic plan is a virtual necessity for organisations. This may not be a expression for success, but without it a business is much more likely to fail. A sound plan shouldExplain the business to others in order to motivate, allege involve other people.Serve as a framework for decisions. concur performance monitoring and benchmarking.Motivate change, bring innovation and run short a vital part for next plan.Strategic supply activities have rifle a signifi potbellyt source of competitiveness for hotel industry. Decision- overlords must be able to integrate strategic initiatives to gain competitive advantage in the brass of increasingly volatile technological innovation, customer expectations, and global competition. Strategy maker professionals must learn to integrate strategic and provision as well. spell others (Walker, 1992 Schuler, 1990 and Ulrich, 1987) have detailed the models for changing strategies, less work has been done to observe the specific steps of linking strategic practices.Strategic Planning of Holiday InnStrategic planning determines the major goals of the organization. It provides the foundation for the policies, procedures and strategies for obtaining and victimisation resources to achieve those goals. Policies are broad guides to action and strategies determine the best way to use resources. At the strategic planning stage, the familiarity decides which customers to serve, what products or services to sell and the geographical areas in which the firm impart compete. in that location are more than 220,000 employees in Holiday Inn Corporation worldwide.While every hotelier is brand beds, redecorating and adding amenities, Holiday Inn and Hilto n are onto the next hospitality marketing bourne solicitous employees.Holiday Inn is trying to brand the guest experience by standardizing service with a program called People Notice. As part of the plan, the chain is implementing the new service culture by conducting a three-calendar month active training program that emphasizes going the extra mile for hotel guests.For example, if a housekeeper learns that a guest is missing a wedding anniversary darn on the road, that employee fuel send flowers to the guests room with an anniversary card signed by the staff. If a guest requires medication to be refrigerated, a staffer butt end follow up by delivering the medicine at the appropriate time with a bottle of water and crackers. Incentives include recognition programs allowing guests and co-workers to laud an employee.Holiday Inn is also participating with privileged branding gurus from Northwestern Universitys fabrication for People Performance Management and Measurement in a mu lti-company excogitate seeking to identify employee behaviors that result in customer loyalty. The Forum couch intends to put a value on these actions so a company can develop a budget and invest in the behaviors that matter. An outer branding campaign is also in the works.Anybody can knock off anybody elses bed, do it better, cheaper and easier when it comes to products today, said Bruce Bolger, the Forums executive director. The difficult thing is changing employee behavior, and that is what sepa place the women from the girls.Mean charm, Hilton Hotelslast month took its internal Be hospitable campaign to TV, print and outdoor, via FCB, San Francisco.One objective of the umbrella effort is to communicate to the public that assurances of Hilton quality also impose to sister brands such as Embassy Suites.The efforts random kindness theme was increase with DVDs, brochures, seminars and other materials provided to employees. Even company orientation packets, health benefit folder s and recruiting booths are stamped with the Be hospitable look.A lot of hotel advertising today is about the bed but frankly, I dont think people are surprise to find a bed when they check in to their room, said Jeffrey Diskin, svp-Hilton blade Performance. We want to help you with why you went on a trip, and to do that, we pack to counsel on what the guest needs. A critical part of that is using our own people.Kathy Sheehan, travel analyst and svp for Roper Reports, New York, said the idea has merit. To differentiate, you have to establish a relationship with the consumer and that means using your people. That practice, dubbed internal branding or leveraging homo capital, is figuring more conspicuously in marketing plans, said Bolger.Indeed, agencies like Golin/Harris, Chicago OgilvyOne, New York and human resources consultants like Hewitt and Mercer are establishing disciplines in people performance focusing for their clients. Draft, Chicago, has also long incorporated inter nal branding as part of its combine marketing approach. Companies are realizing it not all push-and-tell marketing, said Tony Weisman, Drafts CMO. Co-creation by inviting in the customers and the employees is part of the process.WHAT DOES THE ORGANISATION DO TO IMPLEMENT THESE PLANSImplementation means more than simply exercising the plan. It means acting on root onations made during the vulnerability analysis, integrating the plan into company operations, training employees and evaluating the plan.Where Do They Stand proficient Now?Review Internal Plans and PoliciesDocuments to look for include body waste planFire protection planSafety and health programenvironmental policiesSecurity proceduresInsurance programsFinance and purchasing proceduresPlant closing policyEmployee manualsHazardous materials planProcess safety opinionRisk management planCapital improvement programMutual aid agreements attain Critical Products, Services and OperationsYoull need this information to asses s the impaction of potential emergencies and to determine the need for backup systems. Areas to review include learn Internal Resources and CapabilitiesResources and capabilities that could be needed in an sine qua non include military group fire brigade, hazardous materials solution team, emergency medical services, security, emergency management group, body waste team, public information officerEquipment fire protection and downsizing equipment, converses equipment, first aid supplies, emergency supplies, warning systems, emergency origin equipment, decontamination equipmentFacilities emergency operating center, media briefing area, shelter areas, first-aid stations, sanitation facilitiesOrganizational capabilities training, evacuation plan, employee support systemIdentify External ResourcesThere are many orthogonal resources that could be needed in an emergency. In some cases, noble agreements may be necessary to define the facilitys relationship with the following t opical anesthetic emergency management officeFire DepartmentHazardous materials response organizationEmergency medical servicesHospitalsLocal and State natural lawCommunity service organizationsUtilitiesContractorsSuppliers of emergency equipmentInsurance carriersWHAT FACTORS DO THEY APPEAR TO recede INTO ACCOUNT WHEN DEVELOPING STRATEGYPhysical What types of emergencies could result from the design or construction of the facility? Does the physical facility enhance safety? administerThe physical construction of the facilityHazardous processes or byproductsFacilities for storing combustiblesLayout of equipmentLightingEvacuation routes and exitsProximity of shelter areasHuman Error What emergencies can be inductd by employee error? Are employees trained to work safely? Do they know what to do in an emergency? Human error is the single largest pillowcase of workplace emergencies and can result fromPoor trainingPoor careCarelessnessMisconductSubstance abuseFatigueRegulatory What emergencies or hazards are you regulated to deal with?Analyze each potential emergency from beginning to end. Consider what could happen as a result of command access to the facilityLoss of electric powerCommunication lines downRuptured gas mainsWater ill-useSmoke damageStructural damageAir or water contaminationExplosionBuilding throwTrapped personsChemical release good wages The employees expect a good salary from the hotel in return of the work they do. skillful salary is the almost important need of the internal customer and if this need is effect they are satisfied.Good treatment from the management Money is not the only(prenominal) need of the internal customer they also need good treatment from the management.Trust from the management The management should have faith in their employees this depart increase the confidence level of the employees and will have a arbitrary effect on their work.Promotional opportunities Most of the employees are ambitious, especially you ng employees. So they look for promotional opportunities. Promotional opportunities are also one of the essential needs of the internal customer.Various perks Perks or fringe benefits in other words have an immense effect on the view of the staff. By providing special perks to the staff the hotel in a way provokes them to work with their heart, which proves beneficial for the hotel.Job security Employees need a kind of telephone line security for their future. If the job of the employees is secured then they can work tension salve.Good working atmosphere The working atmosphere of the organisation should be cool. There should be no pressure from anywhere so that the employees feel free to work.EXTERNALCUSTOMERSExternal customers are those who are the guests of the hotel. The pay the hotel for the services that are provided to them by the hotel. External customers should be provided with good and efficient service so that they become repeat customers of the hotel.NEEDS OF THE EXTER NAL CUSTOMERSWarm welcome from the hotel First and inaugural what orthogonal customer need is a warm welcome from the hotel. They should be greeted properly when they arrive in the hotel.Efficient service Service is the most influential factor for the customers of the hotel. If the service provided by the hotel is efficient and effective it affects the study of the hotel in a positive way. The external customers can also recommend the hotel to other people.Friendly environment The environment of the hotel should be friendly so that the customers feel like home.Some extra benefits if they are repeat customers If the customers are repeat customers then they should be given some benefits like discounts or special rates, so they feel happy and remain the customers of the hotel for long time.Good facilities The hotel should provide all the essential and also luxurious facilities for which they are stipendiary for.Reasonable and affordable rates The customers always expect affordable rates for their stay or meal in the hotel. This can result in making them repeat customers for the hotel.WHAT COULD BE THE POSSIBLE PROCESSCompanies obviously need to improve scheme implementation activities, but the pace of these activities and the implementation itself have many problems. Primary objectives are somehow forgotten as the strategy moves into implementation, and the initial momentum is lost before the company realizes the expected benefits. The cause isnt easy to explain, but it can be attributed to a transmutation of problems. ways OF ATTRACTING CUSTOMERSAdvertising It is a paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identifiable sponsor. Advertising is a purposive communication to external customers.Pricing Reasonable pricing of the product and services can attract external customers to a certain extent.Channels of distribution deal transport, stock holding and storage, local knowledge, promotion, display can attract ext ernal customers.Sales Promotions These are marketing activities that stimulate consumer purchasing, and dealer effectiveness, such as displays, shows and exhibitions, demonstrations and various non-recurrent interchange efforts not in the ordinary routine.Branding A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, or design intended to identify the product of a seller and to differentiate it from those of competitors. Brand names like Hilton, Marriott can often attract external customers to a wide extent.Personal interchange The sales force is an important part of the communication mix. Personal selling is concerned with an individual selling his own ideas of the typical personal sales. guest loyalty schemes Customer loyalty schemes can also attract external customers. Customer loyalty schemes like fling a discount cards, offering extra facilities during parties etc are effective attracting the external customers to the hotel. general relations Public relations are important to attract extern al customers. Public relations are all about getting publicity for the product through skilful manipulation of the media.Direct marketing It is the planned recording, analysis and bring in of customer behaviour to develop relational marketing strategies.CAN THE ORGANISATION PLAN BE IMPROVED OR DEVELOPEDSimply put, strategic planning determines where an organization is going over the next year or more, how its going to get there and how itll know if it got there or not. The focus of a strategic plan is usually on the entire organization, while the focus of a business plan is usually on a particular product, service or program.There are a variety of perspectives, models and approaches used in strategic planning. The way that a strategic plan is developed depends on the nature of the organizations leadinghip, culture of the organization, complexity of the organizations environment, size of the organization, expertness of planners, etc. For example, there are a variety of strategic pl anning models, including goals-based, issues-based, organic, scenario (some would assert that scenario planning is more a technique than model), etc. Goals-based planning is probably the most common and starts with focus on the organizations mission (and vision and/or values), goals to work toward the mission, strategies to achieve the goals, and action planning (who will do what and by when). Issues-based strategic planning often starts by examining issues facing the organization, strategies to forebode those issues, and action plans. Organic strategic planning might start by articulating the organizations vision and values and then action plans to achieve the vision while adhering to those values. Some planners prefer a particular approach to planning, eg, appreciative inquiry. Some plans are scoped to one year, many to three years, and some to five to ten years into the future. Some plans include only top-level information and no action plans. Some plans are five to eight pages long, while others can be considerably longer.Quite often, an organizations strategic planners already know much of what will go into a strategic plan (this is true for business planning, too). However, suppuration of the strategic plan greatly helps to clarify the organizations plans and ensure that key leaders are all on the same script. Far more important than the strategic plan document, is the strategic planning process itself.REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHYAirey, D. and Johnson, S. (1999), The sate of tourism degree courses in the UK, Tourism Management, Vol. 20, pp. 229-35.Higher Education mount Council for England (2001), Getting Ahead have Careers in Hospitality Management (HEFCE 01/30 May Report), Council for Hospitality Management Education/HEFCE, Bristol.Impact Skills Network (2002), An assessment of skills needs in tourism and cultural industries Skills dialogues, July, available at www.impactskillbase.org.ukJameson, S.M. and Holden, R. (2000), Graduateness who cares? Grad uate identity in small hospitality firms, Education and Training, Vol. 42 No. 4/5, pp. 264-71.http//www.businessballs.com/freenewbusinessplanstemplates.htmhttp//www.businessballs.com/freebusinessplansandmarketingtemplates.htmhttp//marketing.about.com/od/marketingplanandstrategy/Plan_Your_Marketing_Strategy.htmhttp//www.cambridgestrategy.com/content/business_strategy_audit.phphttp//www.ichotelsgroup.com/h/d/pc/1/en/c/2/content/dec/pc/0/en/cs.html?cm_re=pcr-_-hmpg-_-n4a=bhttp//www.largo.com/egov/docs/1253124205_499786.pdfhttp//www.quickmba.com/strategy/strategic-planning/http//www.mybusinesstravel.com/strategies/hotel.phpstrategyshttp//managementhelp.org/plan_dec/str_plan/str_plan.htmhttp//www.hoteldesigns.net/review/review_412_1.htmlhttp//www.allbusiness.com/marketing-advertising/branding-brand-development/4673624-1.htmlwww.thetimes100.co.uk
Saturday, March 30, 2019
Corporate affectionate proficienteousness Case story On Ikea Management EssayThis calculate identifies Corporate tender Responsibility (CSR) as a demanding emergence which takes into deep understanding of CSR by render a road map of core subjects with related issues and instruction execution ground on the principles of CSR and discusses briefly on its characteristics pros and cons theories and approaches justifications and fundamental principles. This publish get dones an insight on the signification of CSR and examines in detail sanitary-nigh the anticipate key likely gains from its operating(a) use followed by the discussion on the troubles and barriers that CSR commonly faces .Finally the report chooses the casing study on IKEA and discusses in depth slightly its CSR perplexs by study its development and strategy dimensions of CSR in somatic affectionate agenda(strategic and antiphonal forms of CSR) and analyses IKEAs responsibilities as integral elemen ts of strategy with a brief discussion on CSR intercourse. The concept of CSR has widened its arena and its change magnitude global demand makes us to sort out the responsibilities of a truehearted with its dimension towards accessible, scotch and surroundingsal impactsINTRODUCTIONThis report identifies Corporate well-disposed Responsibility (CSR) as a hot topic and the reason for choosing CSR is payable to its high profile attainment in the faculty member domain and more or less of us feel CSR as an absolute unavoidableness to define the roles of organizations in Society and apply their responsibilities to their line of credites in terms of societal, estimable and legal standards. Moreover, CSR has become a globalised concept and achieved championship prominence because of its geographic prevalence from US origin to its widespread suitability and establishment in Europe. This report structures the content to understand the concept of CSR by depicting a road map of core subjects with related issues and implementation based on the principles of CSR and discusses briefly on its characteristics pros and cons theories and approaches justifications and fundamental principles. This report gives an insight on the signifi tooshie buoyce of CSR and examines in detail more or less the expected key potential gains from its operative use followed by the discussion on the problems and barriers that CSR generally faces .Finally the report chooses the case study on IKEA and discusses in depth about its CSR experiences by studying its development and strategy dimensions of CSR in corporate brotherly agenda(strategic and responsive forms of CSR) and analyses IKEAs responsibilities as integral elements of strategy with a brief discussion on CSR communication. soul CSRThe term CSR seem to be new and research predicts that thither has been an evolution of its concept throughout m either decades. Way back in 30s of last century, the way of marketing was ini tially on distribution and logistic, that was about how to provide some products at minimal cost. With the total marketing, the centre of acception is to set on the selling systems on the marketing mix comprising the 4 Ps Price, Products, Place, Promotion.Social marketing emerged in the 70s whereby the authoritiesal party decides on the long interests of stakeholders interiorly as well as externally. A stakeholder could be all individual or a group, who sewer influence or stir influenced by behavioral impacts of an organization. The categories of the attach tos stakeholder are shown in the shelve below familys organizational structure and locationInvolvement in the Business activity innateExternalDirectShareholders,investors, be intimaters,employeesCustomers,Lenders,Tax agenciesIndirectConsultants,Suppliers, engagementorsCommunity,NGOs,MediaGeneral public nonrecreational bodiesThe impact of any organization on the society through their operations, products or services r endered by associating with stakeholder groups much(prenominal) as clients, suppliers, employees, investors and community and this move be displayed in the form of a diagram belowSource Mallen bread maker (2007)Different terms and ideas are associated and so it is difficult to define CSR due to ambiguity in the CSR topic of research. There is al tracks a problem to stick onto universal definition of CSR as the concept ranges from mere deference with law to pure Philanthropy. Corporation refers to group of members acting as an individual, be it for moving in or elsewhere. Philanthropy has little to do with CSR because philanthropy is about how a company spends its dimension and CSR is about how a company generates m matchlessy and how responsibly they conduct their business in doing so.However, European commission identifies CSR as a spacious concept and recognizes, CSR as a concept whereby companies conflate affectionate and environmental concerns in their business operat ions and in their interactions with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis(Commission of the European Communities 2001).WHAT CSR IS NOT?1. It is not an alternative for the regularisation of companies2. It is not a replacement for how companies should tweak their social,ethical and environmental impacts3. It go out not save the worldCHARACTERISTICS OF CSRThe main features of CSR can be summarised as shown in the table belowFeaturesDescriptionTriple- permeate-line economical, social and Environmental unforcedAll activities are taken up voluntarily.Stakeholders integrityConnecting all parties come to. long actionCarrying activities over a long-run period.CredibilityEnhances the credibility of the firm.PROS AND CONS OF CSRArguments for CSRArguments against CSREnhances report card in society.Solves the problems caused by business in society.Stabilises corporate power with responsibility.Increases long-term profitabilityBeyond government regulations.Adjusts to im equilibrize demand s of stakeholders.Improves environmental conditions.Business should be meant for profit maximization.Enforces unequal cost among competitors.Stakeholders compelled to hidden costs.Business may drop social skills.Makes to forget the aims of the businessSocial responsibility cannot be a legal responsibility.Places responsibility on the business but not on individual.CSR THEORIES AND APPROACHESThe center on on economic, semipolitical, social and ethical aspects in social public aspects according to Parsons (1961) are primarily based on four features that can be perceived in any social structure such as adaptation to the environment ,goal attainment, social desegregation and pattern livelihood or latency. This hypothesis led to the classification of CSR theories into four types which can be depicted in the following table with their related approaches.TYPES OF THEORIESAND ITS FOCUSAPPROACHES parableINSTRUMENTAL THEORIES focus on the economic aspect of the interaction among busine ssand societyAugmentation of shareholder economic valueThis hypothesis argues that CSR is the only message to the end profits.It is based on wealth creation that is measured by share price.Strategies for competitive wagesSocial investments in the context of ambitionStrategies based on the view of firms available natural resources.Strategies related to the bottom of the economic pyramid.Cause -related marketingConsidering Socially recognised philanthropic activities apply as an instrument in marketingPOLITICAL THEORIESFocus on the business power applicable in the field of views of politicsCorporate constitutionalismFirms social responsibilities arise from their strength of social powerIntegrative social contractAssumption of the existence of contract amongst the business and society.Corporate citizenshipThe firm is perceived as a citizen with participation in community.INTEGRATIVE THEORIESFocus on the integration of social demandsIssues ManagementFirms response to the social a nd political issues and their impactsPublic ResponsibilityCurrent legal procedures and public policies are considered as recommendations for social mathematical operationStakeholder wayStabilizing the firms stakeholdersCorporate social performanceExploring the responses from social legitimacy to social issuesETHICAL THEORIESFocus on the right factor to attain a candid societyStakeholder normative theoryConsidering trustful duties towards firms stakeholdersUniversal rightsConsidering the simulations related to human rights, parturiency rights and respect for environmentSustainable developmentAchievement of human impart by be present and approaching generationsThe common goodAwareness towards the common good of societyJUSTIFICATIONS FOR CSR The prevailing justifications for CSR are shown in the picture below clean-living obligationAttaining commercial accomplishment in approaches that tribute ethical valueInsufficient tending to stabilize complicated competence related to soc ial and economic interests.Varied personal set among managers and stakeholdersLicence to operate maturation goodwill to safeguard the consent of Governments and stakeholdersLicences and approvals are deprivationed for a business to operate.However, this kind of approach will afford to compromise in dictatorial CSR agenda to the externals that pretermit knowledge about companys operations and competitive spot.Encourages defensive attitude responses for snip beingness.SustainabilitySelf-interest to encounter the present needs without compromising the future needsEfficiency on environmental issues yielding immediate economic improvements.In other aspects other than environmental issues, intangible long-term results give a weak justification for short-term costs.Existing justifications focus on the pressure between the firm and society rather than bringing coordination.These generic wine rationales give a trivial guidance for taking up company activities.FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF CSRCSR mainly relies on three fundamental principles such as Economic, Social and Environmental playing fields. The purpose of CSR is to conflate business activity with its market-gardening for attaining sustainability in its economic, social and environmental areas. Each fragment of CSR includes activities, which differ depending on the type of firm and the needs of stakeholders.ECONOMIC AREA The firm is expected to behave as a transparent enterprise .Positive transactionhip among the investors, nodes, suppliers and shareholders is expected. Economic impacts at local, national and international levels should be monitored. Stakeholders and the activities of CSR in the economic area of the market are shown in the table belowEconomic area MarketStakeholdersOwners and investorsCustomers/consumersSuppliers /partnersRegulatory bodiesMediaCSR activitiesCreates ethical codexTransparencyBest dedicate managementPractice anti-corruptionBuild Stockholders dealingBuild Customer/cons umer relationsBuild suppliers relationsBuild investors relationsProtect intellectual propertySOCIAL AREA Responding and tackling the behavioral attitudes to employees in the working environment and focuses on assisting the local community. The company influences the working standards, education, health safety and develops the cultural aspects. The stakeholders and CSR activities in the social area are shown in the table belowSocial areaStakeholdersWork locationLocal communityEmployeesUnionsNon-Profit organizationsPublicCSR activities health safety of the employeesHuman resources developmentGet rid of child labourFollow working standardsSupporting laid-off employeesAssurance of jobsSupporting social integrityCorporate volunteerismDonor shipEducating PublicImproving the caliber life of employeesCreation of jobs and develop local infrastructure.ENVIRONMENTAL AREA The Company focuses on its impact on ecosystem and elements like land, air and water. The company feels its close to prot ect the natural resources.Environmental areaStakeholdersGroups related to environmental aspects.CSR activitiesEco-friendly touch on and manufacturing products and services.Agreement with regulatory and standards(ISO,EMAS)Renewal of energies policy by recycling and apply eco-friendly products.Lessening the environmental impacts.Protecting the natural resources.ROADMAP FOR CSR The following roadmap depicts the core subjects and CSR implementation based on the principles ofSource vi.unctad.org/russiast09/docs/millercsr.pptCORE SUBJECTS AND ISSUES Issues related to core subjects of CSR can bedepicted from the following tableCORE SUBJECTSISSUESORGANIZATIONAL politicsShareholder activismPolitical economyCross border investments by external investorsHUMAN RIGHTSDue attentivenessRisk conditionsEscaping complicityDetermining grievancesInequity and capable groupsCivil rightsPolitical rightsEmployees fundamental rightsSocio-economic and cultural rightsLABOUR PRACTICESSocial conversationCh ild labourForced labourEmployment relationshipsWork conditionsSocial guarantor health and safety at employmentTraining and progress in the employmentENVIRONMENTAvoidance of PollutionMaintenance of resourcesMitigating and adapting climatic changeProtecting the natureREASONABLE OPERATIONSAnti-corruptionSensible political implicationsGood competitionEncouraging social responsibility in the field of influenceAssessing the value for property rightsCONSUMER ISSUESAwarenessMarket sensingHealth and safety for consumer protectionConsumption sustainabilityConsumer support and solution for disputesData security and privacyEntry to necessary servicesCOMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND overtureEducation CultureCreating employment and developing skillsAdvancement of technologyIncome generationSocial investmentCommunity healthCSR DRIVERS The key drivers of CSR are discussed in the table belowDRIVERSDESCRIPTIONProfound self-interestGenerate ethical, social and economical cohesion where markets, labour an d communities are linked to work together.Social investmentSocial capitalism and percentage to infrastructure has been seen progressively as necessary part of business activity.Transparency and trustPublic perceives business as low ratings of trust. Public expectation about companys openness and obligation leads to prepare a report encompassing their performance in the areas of social and environmental issues.Increased public expectations of businessPublic expects beyond the companys contribution to the economy by taxation and provision of employment.In addition to the in a higher place key drivers, the following list shows general drivers of CSR.Business Risk managementReputation and check off managementLearning and innovationCost nest egg and operational efficiencyCompetitiveness and market positioningImproved relations with regulatorsOrganizational transformation and continued improvementIMPLEMENTING CSREach firm is anomalous in its operational procedures, its awareness of CSR issues and the amount of work done towards CSR implementation.Therefore variant firms adopt different frameworks depending on their CSR approach.However, it adds value to the firm when CSR is implemented in a systematic route by integrating its mission, strategy, cultural, environmental and endangerment profiles, processes and activities. The following framework for CSR implementation gives scope to build quality and environmental management, which follows the model of plan, do, check and improve based on ISO standards .This tractile framework can be adapted by any firm as suitable for its organization.Implementation FrameworkPHASESSTEPSTASKS image1.Perform CSRassessmentGather a CSR management teamWork out the definition of CSRRe-examine corporate documents, processes and activitiesRecognize and connect key stakeholders2. Build up a CSRstrategy arise support with experienced managerial facultyInvestigate others tasksDesign a format of proposed CSR activitiesBuild the ideas for scheduling and the business case for themFix on areas of roadmap, methodology and focusDo3. Explore CSRcommitmentsTake a gaze on CSR commitmentsOrganize discussions with key stakeholdersDesign the group to develop the commitmentsPlan for an introductory draftCheck with concerned stakeholders4. Implement CSRcommitmentsBuild an combine CSR decision-making frameworkPrepare a CSR business planLay level the quantifiable goals and find out the measures of performanceSlot in the employees and to whom so ever applicable to CSR commitmentsPropose and perform CSR trainingSet up workshop to address the behavioural problemsDesign for setting up essential andexternal communicationsCheck5. Authenticate and report on progress count on the performanceHold stakeholdersReport on performanceImprove6. pass judgment and EnhanceAssess the performanceDiscover the opportunities for enhancementEngage stakeholders double check Once a cycle completesGo back to plan and go ahead with subsequent cycleS IGNIFICANCE OF CSRThe issue of CSR initiatives and the perceptions of ethical standards have gained more attention by the management in considering approaches to strategic marketing. Usually, CSR is of growing importance towards managing the business processes and is magnetizing growing company investment. Unfortunately, marketing departments lack the skills to manage even the issues related to genius thereby narrowing the insights. For example, pharmaceutical companies were criticised in the media for arrogance and lack of transparency. In order to rebuild its reputation, Pfizer took initiative to set up free medicines to those who were laid-off during recession. So marketing strategy expects to look for opportunities for recrudesce competitive positioning in market segments through incrementd customer value integrated with CSR initiatives. Majority of business leaders are centre on CSR as a tool for differentiation and competitive advantage leading to generate revenue.CSR is not only authorised in considering the consumer relationships but also scrutinizes business-to-business relationships (comprising lend chain partners) with stakeholders like investors, government and lobby groups.CSR is an important business strategy by giving meaning and direction to twenty-four hours to-day operations. Satisfying each of the stakeholder groups allows companies to maximize their commitment to another important stakeholder group-their investors, who benefit most when the needs of these other stakeholder groups are being met.The business succeeds when values indoors the decision-making process and objectives of the organization are met. Lifestyle brand firms, in particular, need to live the ideals they convey to their consumers.CSR as a strategy is becoming increasingly important for businesses today because of three specific trends shown in the table belowTrendsDiscussionChanging social expectationsConsumers and society in general expect more from the companie s whose products they buy with the regulatory bodies and organizations in place to experience corporate excess.Increasing affluenceA society in need of work and inward investment is less likely to enforce unappeasable regulations and penalize organizations that might take their business and money elsewhere.GlobalizationThe lucre fuels communication among like-minded groups to initiate a product boycott.These three trends bode corporate success. The result of this mix is that consumers today are better aware and feel more empowered to put their beliefs into action. CSR is particularly important within a globalizing world because of the way brands are built, at a time when these values and demands are constantly evolving.CSR can thusly best be described as a total approach to business in maintaining brand dominance. primeval POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF CSRThe benefits to firms, community and environment by practicing CSR can be discussed at length in the following tableKEY POTENTIAL BE NEFITSDISCUSSIONEfficiency in risk managementCSR oversees and scrutinizes the corporate activities by effectively managing the risks involved in governance, social, economic, environmental and legal aspects in day-to-day complicated market, thereby safeguarding the bring home the bacon for overall market stability. trespass analysis about a firm by considering the concerns of the parties involved is one of the better ways to anticipate in managing the risks. This ultimately nippingens the decision-making.Enhanced reputation managementReputation of a firm is mainly based on values such as trust, quality, reliability, which reflect the organizations image and brand fruition and so any firm concerned about addressing the CSR issues, can manage their reputation with effective CSR management.Ability to develop the recruitment and retention of staffEffectiveness in CSR policies improvise the human resource management which has direct impact on firms image related to its products and s ervices.CSR indirectly help in executing the programs that enhance the morality and loyalty of employees who are valuable resources for companys performance. fostering innovation, competitiveness and market positioningCSR gives positive impact in avoiding the risks by tackling diverse stakeholders who are the basic sources for generating ideas for novel products and markets thereby differentiating from its competitor, which result in competitive advantage, thus developing competitive strength based on innovative business models. For instance, a certified firm with social and environmental standards improves the chance to become a supplier to specific retailers.Increased operational efficiencies and cost reductionsBy implementing CSR, there is always an opportunity to transform eat streams into revenue streams by systematic approach of environmental aspect of renewable energies by reducing costs through recycling. Tangible cost savings signify the reduction in carbon emissions.Buil ding efficient supply chain relationshipsA firm is at risk to susceptibility in its supply chain. Companies with like-mindedness can build long-term business relationships with aim to increase their profits by maintaining standards and thereby tackle the risks. Larger firms encourage small firms with whom they are related to take up CSR approach. For example, particular retailers may beseech their suppliers to adopt certain codes and practices.Improved ability to tackle changeCSR aids as a radar to anticipate the emerging market trends and by regular stakeholder dialogue with customers, a company can respond to any changes that occur in regulatory, economic, social and environmental aspects.Generate robust social licence to function in the communityBetter understanding between citizen and stakeholder recognition of the firms activities and objectives can render enhanced stakeholder relations, thereby giving scope for robust alliances of public, private and civilized society.CSR en hances the social capital.Enhances investmentAs CSR enhances the brand reputation, it leads to raising the companys profile in the investment community. The company value can be improved through further investments.CSR approach drives the fiscal institutions about incorporation of social and environmental criteria into their project plan leading sharp decision-making of where to invest money and this motivates the investors to look for better CSR management.Better relations with media and government regulatorsCSR indicators act as tool for the governments to decide on obtaining export assistance contracts in some countries. In many cases, though CSR activities are beyond the regulatory requirements, governments considered CSR views to expedite the approval processes for firms in order to meet their sustainability goals by recognizing the business sector engagement as a requirement.Building customer relationshipsIn Cause related marketing the altruistic activities of the firms can be recognized by morally conscious customers who may be flexible in paying higher prices or in reduced costs may increase their purchasing power and so CSR in broader hotshot has significant impact in building the long-term customer legitimacy,loyalty,trust or brand equity.Acting as a catalyst for responsible usanceIn order to combat with the ever changing consumption patterns, company has to play a key role in achieving sustainability by the way it supplies its goods and services in the marketplace to meet responsible consumerism which considers to relate consumer rights and issues and how well the relationship between producers and consumers is authorized by regulatory bodies.BARRIERS AND CHALLENGESCSR implementation in a competitive world draws certain barriers and challenges which are due to problem in implementing CSR concurrently with other businessConcerns in a balanced and remarkable mannerDifficulty of transparencyLack of clear communicationEconomic thoughtlessnessVarious instability problems in developing countriesespecially problematic for SMEsComplexity of the issues involved and so difficulty in managing the supply chain and regulating the sub-contractorsComplex set of issues asCSR covers a broad array of direct and indirect businessperformances, achievements, and so its impacts differ fromone business sector to anotherInternational differences that may lead to lack of universal acceptance in examining the potential impacts of CSR. Misinterpretation due to CSR being judged differently in many parts of the world depending on different priorities. For example, Chinese consumers interpret social responsibility as safe, high-quality products, while mho Africans consider it as a contribution to healthcare and education. In Australia, Canada, Indonesia and the UK the highest antecedency is to protect the environment. In Turkey, it is cogitated as an indicator for charitable donation. In U.S, France, Italy and Switzerland and most of South America, t he highest priority is towards fair treatment of employees.Complex set of stakeholders benevolent to the business for a CSR attitudethe appropriate stakeholders need to be involvedstakeholder involvement is important, yet difficultAlways ambiguity between CSR and financial successLow voluntary acceptance of CSR can lead to car park washingLack of devices to measure, monitor evaluate and report theimpactsTwo myths little companies think it the responsibility of the bigger onesandIt is mainly a philanthropic customHigh overheads of implementing and sustaining CSR efforts.No universally accepted frameworksSome of the main internal company barriers to CSR initiatives areExecutives recommending strategic marketing programmes that focus on CSR-based positioning must be aware of the likely barriers and challenges from those who do not believe CSR as a legitimate strategic tool.CASE STUDY CSR AT IKEAThe reason for choosing IKEA as case study of CSR work is to understand its CSR focus as a leading company, which ranks as the first in CSR in the Accountabilitys Responsible Competitiveness Index 2008 (RCI). IKEA was selected due to its long history and experience in the area and its response to several CSR-related crises and criticisms that has enabled the organization to develop integrated policies and a range of collaborations and initiatives with stakeholders and could set an example for companies aiming to develop their economic and environmental sustainability.IKEA is a value-based Swedish furniture giant that has wide recognition for its focus on cost reduction and it is a progressive company that manages to integrate its cost focus with CSR issues. This report discusses in detail about how this integration is possible for IKEA and it is interesting to know its implications for other companies who want to combine CSR into their business practices.The CSR experience gained by IKEA can make other companies to realise that CSR is not necessarily a cost addition bu t it is a cost-cutter, which imparts increasing knowledge on how companies can be socially responsible. The aim is therefore to analyze the relationship between the value addition by CSR for a company to its corporate strategy. Public awareness about IKEAs CSR activities is only through proper communication and so this report investigates on how the CSR is communicated by IKEA. This report d
Syntactic misplays in WritingIntroductionWhen the British colonised the then Malaya, slope was utilise in the colonial administration. side of meat was the national voice communication in Malaya and it was utilise as medium of instruction in side of meat inculcates. When Malaya gained independence in 1957, the role of position as the official langu sequence dropped and Bahasa Melayu replaced English as the national language and medium of instruction in schools. In schools, English is considered as the plump for language. The official status of English in peninsular Malaysia ceased after 31st August 1967, in Sabah was after September 1973 and in Sarawak was after September 1985. (Asmah Haji Omar, 2003)Even though English is the imprimatur language in Malaysia and it is still delectation in well-nighly urban atomic human activity 18as, however, some(prenominal) people feel that the younger generations of Malaysians atomic number 18 not estimable in the language. on that point is a great difference in English proficiency among urban and rural school students even though they component the same syllabus. This energy be because mother natural language and Bahasa Malaysia be astray utilize in the rural community comp bed to English.Problem Statement umpteen give lessonsers and researchers gear up that many students in Malaysia guide problems in writing syntactical e veryy correct English sentence. This might be because of their expo legitimate to the language is slighter than the exposure to the national language, Bahasa Malaysia or is due to the influence of the mother saliva and Bahasa Malaysia.Saadiyah Darus and Khor (2009) investigated write English essays of Form 1 Chinese students in a school in Perak and they put in that their reduces make numerous syntactic errors in their essays. Errors on tense made up of 121 of errors and subdue verb arranging consists of 87 errors. Thus, they believed that the errors made by their subje cts atomic number 18 due to the influence of their introductory language and as well as due to confusion on the English grammar rules because some rules in English do not exist in their mother tongue or jump language.Saadiyah Darus and Kaladevi Subramaniam (2009) examined written English essays of Form 4 students in a school in Semenyih, Selangor and they found that the majority of their subjects made mistakes in crotchety/plural run followed by verb tense and others. They concluded that their subjects have problems acquiring normal grammatical rules in English.There be ii aims for this lease. The initiative objective is to identify the parking lot syntactic errors in compositions written by upper secondary- specifically Form four students. The second objective is to identify the concludes the subjects affiliated the errors.AnalysisTwenty two essays on Sports injuries and its bar were collected from 22 form four students from a secondary school in Petaling Jaya. There be 12 Malays, 3 Chinese and 7 Indian students in this class. These students are considered as of graduate(prenominal) or high intermediate proficiency. The students are all males and they are from the first class of the after part form and they all came from national type school that uses Bahasa Malaysia as the briny(prenominal) medium of instruction. The essays were then marked and analysed for the viridity errors the subjects committed.Type of ErrorsNumber of individualSubject Verb Agreement14Tenses13Auxiliary10 eccentric/Plurals10Preposition8 circumvent 1 Type of ErrorsError flush FormHere some general rules for injury barion.Here are some general rules for injury prevention.There is a lot of free reins in the world.There are a lot of free reins in the world.Rules, aside from guardianship the games fair, is excessively to help make the sports safer for everyone.Rules, aside from keeping the games fair, are also to help make the sports safer for everyone.These steps is important in preventing injuries.These steps are important in preventing injuries.There are a few ways to prevent this injuries.There are few ways to prevent these injuries. set back 2 Examples of errors in subject verb agreementAccording to the findings, the about park error made by the students is the subject verb agreement. Fourteen out of 22 students have problems in subject verb agreements. Most of the students do not realize when to use is/are and was/were. For example, These steps is important in preventing injuries. This student used is instead of are might be because he does not agnize the differences between is and are and when to use the appropriate verb. Students have problems in antitheticaliating the verbs because in Chinese and Mandarin, on that point is an absence of agreement between subjects and verbs in the languages and this may cause the students to commit errors on subject verb agreement. (Saadiyah Darus Khor, 2009)Maros et al (2007) examined the inte rference in breeding English among form 1 students in Malaysia and they found that most of their subject committed grammatical errors due to the interference of Bahasa Malaysia. In Bahasa Malaysia, in that respect is no such(prenominal) subject verb agreement rule that requires inflections based on the number of subjects. For example when He plays basketball is translated into Bahasa Malaysia, it volition be Dia main bola keranjang. Even though dia is a third person singular, in Bahasa Malaysia, thither is no ask to add the postfix -s after the contrive main. Hence, the subjects were distressed on when to add the suffix -s and this resulted in numerous subject verb agreement errors in their essays.Subject verb agreement errors are very gross among second language learners. Even academics make mistakes in subject verb agreement in their academic papers. Flowerdew (2001) mentioned that subject verb agreement as one of the common errors in papers submitted by non-native writers of English. (Ting, Mahanita Mahadhir Chang, 2010) Hence, it is not surprising to find that the most common error made by the students in this guinea pig is subject verb agreement.ErrorCorrect FormAccording to sports injuries statistics of 2009, the highest number of sport injuries account was soccer which is then followed by rugby and basketball.According to sports injuries statistics of 2009, the highest number of sport injuries reported was soccer which was then followed by rugby and basketball.We arse also have heavy injuries where we get knocked out like in rugby and end up in the hospital.We goat also have serious injuries where we got knocked out like in rugby and ended up in the hospital.Warm muscles are less susceptible to injuries.Warmed muscles are less susceptible to injuries.The table immortalizen the number of sport injuries in soccer is high(prenominal) than the other sports.The table shows that the number of sport injuries in soccer is higher than the other s ports.It follows by rugby that has the second highest percentage.It is followed by rugby that has the second highest percentage.Table 3 Examples of errors on tensesNext is the error on tenses, whereby 13 out of 22 students made errors on tenses. Saadiyah Darus and Khor (2009) examined the four most common errors in writings of form 1 Chinese students and they found that errors on tense are the second highest total number of errors in the study after mechanics of writing. They found that the result is not surprising because the English notion of tense is something confvictimization to second language learners. This is because, in Chinese and Bahasa Malaysia, in that location is no indication of time in their verbs as compared to English that has present, past, future and continuous tenses. Besides that, it brook also be fancied that some students are not aware of the different rules of tenses application. (Saadiyah Darus Kaladevi Subramaniam, 2009) Another reason might be because in Chinese and Bahasa Malaysia, words are added onwards the verb to show the time of the action. (Ting, Mahanita Mahadhir Chang, 2010) Hence, students have problems in constructing sentences with correct tenses.Wee (2009) found that Asian students tend to use the stem forms of the verbs in all contexts no matter of their tense. This is because Bahasa Malaysia does not have any linguistic device like verb inflections to show past time. So, the Malay students often use the stem of forms of the verbs in beau monde to simplify the target language rules and reduce their linguistic burden or learning load (Wee, 2009). Warmed muscles are less susceptible to injuries in Bahasa Malaysia would be Otot-otot yang telah panas tidak mudah mengalami kecederaan. The word telah shows the tense of the sentence in Bahasa Malaysia whereas in English, we need to add the suffix -ed to show the past tense of the sentence. Therefore, the subjects will ordinarily omit the tense because they do not kno w when to add the suffix -ed.ErrorCorrect FormWe can prevent injuries if we be in a puritanical bodily terminal figure when playing a sport.We can prevent injuries if we are in a proper physical term when playing a sport.Frequent training and instruct can install useful in a long run.Frequent training and conditioning proven to be useful in a long run.The first way to prevent sport injuries is be in proper physical condition to play a sport.The first way to prevent sport injuries is to be in proper physical condition to play a sport.The athletes should had properly train for the sport.The athletes should be trained properly for the sport.Table 4 Examples of errors on supplementResults show that many students have problems in using the appropriate auxiliary in their compositions. They often used the wrong form of modals. For example, the majority of the students wrote We can prevent injuries if we be in a proper physical condition when playing a sport instead of We can prevent injuries if we are in a proper physical condition when playing a sport. This shows that many students did not know the proper use of auxiliary verb. Ali Akbar Khansir (2008) investigated syntactic errors in English committed by Indian undergraduates and he found that errors on auxiliary were the second highest error committed by his subjects. His study revealed that there is a lack of knowledge of auxiliary verb rules among his subjects.ErrorCorrect FormFor example, in rugby we must discontinue a mouth guards to prevent our mouth or teeth from injuries.For example, in rugby we must wear a mouth guard to prevent our mouth or teeth from injuries.A sportsmen can do this by doing regular exercises, eating proper fodder and doing regular practice.A sport can do this by doing regular exercises, eating proper food and doing regular practices.These safety gear such as ball guards, helmets and etc are designed to prevent injuries.These safety gears such as ball guards, helmets and etc ar e designed to prevent injuries.There are many reason they got injured.There are many reasons they got injured.This is because most of the athlete did not warm up before playing.This is because most of the athletes did not warm up before playing.Table 5 Examples of errors on singular/pluralsTen students made errors on singular and plurals. Most of them do not know when to apply the suffix -s when it is a plural noun. This might be due to the absence of plural stigma for a noun in Bahasa Malaysia. (Saadiyah Darus Kaladevi Subramaniam, 2009) Some students might be aware of the instauration of singular and plural nouns, further probably they are confused on when they should use singular or plural nouns. For example, There are many reasons they got injured when translated into Bahasa Malaysia will be Terdapat banyak punca mereka cedera. In Bahasa Malaysia, the word banyak indicates many, so banyak punca pith many reasons. However, in English, we must apply the suffix -s to show that there are many reasons.ErrorCorrect FormDuring the year 2009, the highest number of sport injuries was soccer.In the year 2009, the highest number of sport injuries was soccer.For the conclusion, there are many ways to prevent injuries when we are playing sports.In conclusion, there are many ways to prevent injuries when we are playing sports.For example, our countrys storied national football game player, Mokhtar Dahari, retired in his football career at such a young age because of his calf injury.For example, our countrys famous national football player, Mokhtar Dahari, retired from his football career at such a young age because of his calf injury.Last but not least, avoid playing when you are in tired or in pain.Last but not least, avoid playing when you are tired or in pain.Sports can be divided to many categories such as indoor sports, outdoorsy sports and aquatic sports.Sports can be divided into many categories such as indoor sports, outdoor sports and aquatic sports.Tab le 6 Examples of errors on prepositionError on preposition is the least error made by the students. Only 8 out of 22 students made errors on preposition. Error on preposition happens might be because of the interference of students L1 and Bahasa Malaysia. This is because some of the prepositions in Mandarin and Bahasa Malaysia have correspondent meanings and functions with the prepositions in English. Hence, students might be confused on which preposition to be uses in their writing because sometimes a preposition in Bahasa Malaysia can be translated into different English prepositions. (Saadiyah Darus Khor, 2009) Ting and colleagues (2010) examined university students grammatical errors in spoken English and they found that, their subjects made the most mistakes in preposition and this indicates that the subjects are uncertain of the correct use of goods and services of the prepositions in the appropriate settings. The same problem occurs in students writings because the studen ts are uncertain of the correct usage of the prepositions.SummaryAccording to the data collected, 14 students made errors on subject verb agreement, 13 on tenses, 10 on auxiliary, 10 on singular/plural verb and 8 on prepositions. The reasons students made these errors might be due to the influence of their mother tongue or first language. Another reason might be because the subjects are confused with the rules of grammar usage.Every Form four student in the Malaysian rearing system follows the same English language syllabus provided by the Ministry of cultivation of Malaysia. The current syllabus has been used since 2003. The syllabus is divided into two sections the first is Learning Outcomes and Specifications and the second section is Language Content. Under the language content, there is a list of grammatical items that the teacher has to teach in class. They are nouns, articles, adjectives, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, connectors, sentences and punctuation. So, eve ry grammatical item is covered under the syllabus but the subjects still have problems with the grammar rules. Therefore, students should be made aware of the grammar rules and the teachers should make sure their students know how the grammar rules and apply them in their writings.There are some limitations in this study. First, the students were selected based on their proficiency and not based on ethnicity, so it is not easy to determine whether students mother tongue or first language influence the students command of English. Secondly, students compositions should be marked by to a greater extent(prenominal) than one marker so that the result will be more reliable. Thirdly, this study was conducted in an urban secondary school where English is used widely in the community. So, the result of the study does not indicate that all students in Malaysia commit the same errors and have the same reasons behind the errors. Thus, this study can be improved by taking these factors into co nsideration.ConclusionIn conclusion, by referring to previous studies and the results of the data collected, most students in Malaysia commit syntactic errors in their written compositions. Hence, teachers play an important role in education the students the correct forms of the language. They can incorporate grammar lessons into their English lessons and device interesting games and exercises to teach their students grammar. Many students and teachers acknowledge the fact that grammar lessons are boring and most teachers will try to avoid grammar lessons because the students are not interested in learning them. However, if teachers are able to device interesting lesson plans for their grammar lessons, students will be very interested and will participate actively in class.
Friday, March 29, 2019
enormousness of custody Planning1. To analyse the importance of men curriculum and explain the difficulties.ImportanceIn its plainst terms men cookery is getting the right heel of pot with the right skills, h obsolescent ups, and competencies in the right dividing lines at the right fourth dimension. This shorthand definition c everywheres a comprehensive impact that bequeaths managers with a frame hunt for devising staffing decisions found on an formations mission, strategic plan, budgetary resources, and a set of coveted domesticate force competencies.This treat is simple in outline scarce depends on rigorous and comprehensive analysis of the organisations work, workforce, and strategic way.Workforce preparation requires voiceless steering takeershiphip distinctlyly averd vision, mission, and strategic objectives and cooperative collateral efforts of staff in several functional argonas. Strategic supply, budget, and human resources atomic mo 18 ke y players in workforce cookery. Organisation plans set organisational direction and articulate measurable programme endeavors and objectives. The budget process plans for the funding to achieve objectives. human being resources provides tools for identifying competencies needed in the workforce and for recruiting, developing, training, retraining, or placing employees to build the workforce of the succeeding(a).Organisational achiever depends on having the right employees with the right competencies at the right time. Workforce readiness provides managers the agent of identifying the competencies needed in the workforce non altogether in the present, but also in the future and then selecting and developing that workforce.Fin totallyy, workforce prep bedness allows organisations to address systematically issues that argon driving workforce shift. The boilersuit benefits of workforce planning, then, argon its ability to crap managers and programmes more than sound A wor kforce plan must enumeration the workforce analysis, competency assessments, hurly burly analysis, and workforce transition planning that makes up the planning process. These entropy provide the documentation of the inputs and comprise the fundamental output of the planning. This information establishes the validity of whatever workforce plan by demonstrating the links between workforce planning and programme counsel, budget justifications, Organisation goals, and human resources work planning.Workforce planning provides managers with a strategic basis for human resource solicitude decision-making that is ground on achieving programme goals. Forecasting molds based on analysis of the workforce allow managers to anticipate turnover and to plan recruiting and employee development to move toward the workforce needed in the future which form a radar for insistent monitoring.Difficulties in workforce planningSome of the problems with workforce planning tinge to the incongruen ce of the process with the traditional HR function (Friel, 2002). Most HR leaders oversee established, routine work involving benefits, patch uproll processing and gambol classification. prison term which could be spent doing strategic work is often eaten up by HR administration. In the US, some federal agencies such as the cozy Revenue Service, cod attempted to counteract this problem by carve up the two sides of the HR function to create two de fatements (Friel, 2002).In the away workforce plans have been approved on the basis of personal credibility, non quantifiable metrics, which do non stand the test when organisations run into difficulties. Sullivan (2002b) recommends that organisations project training their HR staff in the relevant skills and revisiting their proceeding guidance and bonus schemes so that they measure and reward workforce planning.Lack of integratingIn practice, it is often through independently of other processes whilst there is a danger of ex ercising too much corporate power over different units (Sullivan, 2002d).Integration of Planning ProcessesIn the wee(prenominal), the process of workforce planning was independent to other resource allocation activities such as budgeting and occupation planning. As a result, managers found themselves confronted with different and often contradictory forecasts (Sullivan, 2002d).A number of models of workforce planning propose that forecasting should begin with an esteem of the future direction of the business. The importance of aligning strategic and workforce plans has been underscore in academic research. There has long been the argument that HR practices that be consistent with or reinforcing stimulus organisational strategy argon more legal than those that do not (eg Schuler Jackson, 1987).Whilst it is tempting to integrate local plans into a whelm workforce plan, Bechet (2000) stresses keeping them separate and not consolidated. This is because the process of consolida tion some time squeezes out the very detail that is well-nigh useful and ends up showing evidentiary differences between units.Lack of Ownership jibe to Sullivan (2002c), workforce planning has often been seen as something owned by the HR incision, not by anxiety. However, when times are tight, it is not HR who has the authority. This threatens the security of workforce planning since, without a real appreciation of its benefits, management whitethorn decide it is dispensable. endure shows that ownership of any HR initiative needs to be encompassing to senior levels with a senior champion determine to help lead the process through.Lack of FlexibilityThe manpower planning strategies of the past worked jibe to straight-line festering and tried to define a single bulls-eye for a laughingstock (Sullivan, 2002d). Recent transmits have shown that the business world often fails to follow diachronic patterns and that organisational plans need to be more flexible (Sullivan, 200 2b). To be useful, Sullivan recommends that workforce planning includes a range of targets and that organisations prepare for all eventualities in that range.One means through which flexibility set up be achieved is through scenario planning (see Reilly, 1996). Scenarios are not intended to be predictive. Rather they recognise that uncertainty is not just an occasional, temporary deviation from a reasonable predictability it is a basic structural feature of the business purlieu. (Wack, 1985). Particularly as originally veritable by Shell, their aim is to challenge assumptions of how the world works and to generate discernment of the important factors involved.Lack of PrioritisationIn the past workforce plans have failed because they have been over-ambitious and have tried to achieve too much (Sullivan, 2002c). To be effective, Sullivan recommends that they be rightsized and aim to cover only those areas where they will have a signifi elicitt impact. Workforce plans cannot possib ly include everything so they should prioritise certain units, jobs, customers and products. soundless Event Using Long Time-FramesIn the past, workforce planning has utilize long time frames, sometimes looking ahead up to louvre or ten years. Often managers have refuse to revisit plans more on a regular basis because they take so long to develop (Sullivan, 2002d). Whilst an overview of the overall direction of the organisation requires a long-term focus, Sullivan recommends that detailed plans focus no more than 18 months ahead.Workforce planning should be seen as a living document (Reilly, 1996), something which is not static but needs to respond to changing circumstances. It is not an event (Bechet, 2000) but should be monitored regularly to avoid strategic shake off (Johnson, 1987) where the match between the organisation and the external world disappears. Issues need to be defined on an ongoing basis and a discussion of the staffing implications of intensifys in business pl ans should be conducted each and every time change is discussed or anticipated.Bad Data and AnalysisIn the 1980s the amount and the t unmatched of voice of workforce-planningrelated information that was available to HR was minuscule by todays exemplars (Sullivan, 2002a). Without the ability to affiliate infobases and analyse abstruse trends, HR planning was forced to guess, or all too commonly to utilise straight-line forecast. In addition, plans tended to be based stringently on internal data without any shareation of what was going on outside (Sullivan, 2002d).Nowadays there are significantly better data and analysis techniques available (Sullivan, 2002a). The increased availability of scotch and business data on the internet makes forecasting much easier and cheaper for even small firms. price of admission to enterprise-wide software packages now allows managers to easily collect data for forecasts and to prepare practicable workforce plans.2. To evaluate the significan ce of employee motivation and appraisal programmes in a businessImportance of appraisal for employee motivationOne of the secrets of a tidy acting company is the fact that they recognized the importance of staff motivation. surveil out for companies that are 10 years old and above, the secret of their nutriment and longevity lies on the above truth. A solid and good management doesnt joke with the above notion.The truth of the matter is this for a staff to work efficiently and effectively, employees must be motivated. This means that their efforts should be rewarded with physical, financial and psycho formal benefits and incentives so that they could maintain a high level of morale, satisfaction, and productivity. It means that workers should be stimulated to take a desired socio-economic class of action by providing them with the opportunities to gain what they loss.Employee motivation is a function of all managers in everyday and of personnel managers in particular. The fo llowing are some of the techniques that can be apply by a manager to motivate employees.Ensuring employee participation in the decision making processPaying adequate and fair salary to employeesPraising employees for good works d championKeeping employees in the experience concerning changes in company policyShowing interest in workers and handsome them adequate, personal attentionMaking the fullest use of employees skills, cerebrations, suggestions and abilitiesGiving employees helpful direction and assistance when they are in problemMaking employees feel deposit of their jobs and free from anxietySetting good examples and exhibiting personal diligence communication standards to employees and making them know where they stand how well they are doing and what they can do to improve.The need to motivate employees is no longer hidden. What remains controversial is the surmount method of motivation. The rapid profusion and appearance of theories of motivation is a clear testimon y to this. Peoples needs and situations set forth. This implies that there can be no simple generalizations or one best method of motivation but instead a selective practise of the techniques suggested above.Performance idea of an employeePerformance Appraisal is the regular, formalise and magnetic disked fall over of the way in which an individual is performing his job. It is the evaluation of the performance of employees. According to Beach performance appraisal is the continual systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to his performance on the job and his potential for development.Staff or performance appraisal is an integral part of every managers function. Indeed, whether intended or not, it come abouts versedly on a day- subsequently-day basis in order to agree how to get work done and which members of staff to allocate to what duties. However, a formalized appraisal is a planned, systematic, methodical and comprehensive joint evaluation exercise by the go overr ad the ap extolment. The extent of staff participation the degree of planning, and the purposes and priorities of appraisal systems vary from one organisation to another.The main objectives of staff performance appraisal are as followsTo identify and reward competence and excellenceTo identify staff training needs and develop the potential of those employs who can satisfy different future manpower needs inside the organizations.To identify performance deficiencies and spur improvements in themTo motivate employees to be highly productive based on their experience of a forthcoming evaluation of their performanceA planned and formalized performance appraisal scheme involves(a) A definition of clear job objectives, targets and standards for each employee(b) An objective evaluation of staff performance and results against previously concord standards.(c) An open discussion of the results and their implications(d) An agreement of committed plans for the future work of the a ppraise and the boss.The traditional method of appraising employees involves the annual filling of a standard appraisal form by the employees superiors. The form usually deals with various aspects of the employees work such as output level, co-operation with co-workers, ability to work independently, initiative, cost consciousness, goal orientation, etc. The performance of each employee in the year under review is then rated for each of these criteria apply a numerical scale. For instance, if the scale is from 1 to 10, and employee might be scored 2/10 for output level, 3/10 for co-operation with co-workers, etc. The scores will then be summed together to determine whether the employee has performed well or not.In addition to the evaluation of a workers past performance, the superior might be asked to rate the workers potential for growth and publicity by stating that the worker is highly promising, average and may succeed with effort, flimsy to advance or a total write-off. To c ap it all, the officer may be invited to make a general comment on the employee after which the form is sent to a higher hierarchy of management for consideration, comments and benediction or rejection.To make an appraisal system a success, the following principles must be observed in its design and operation.It should be tailor-made to the precise nature and needs of the organizationIt should not be seen as an annual, ritualistic exercise, without any purpose, substance and significance.It should be objective and fair so that an employees performance ratings will not depend on who he or she knows in the organization. To achieve this, the exercise should involve more than just the appraisers immediate superior. The appraisers colleagues and subordinates should be brought into the picture.It should be standardized throughout the organizationIt should be based on specific goals or targets for improvementsIt should include some form of self-appraisal and should be based on open const ructive discussion not broad praise or criticism.Subordinates should participate in setting the goals on which they will be appraised in the future. Superiors should not impose goals on their subordinates.Line managers must be trained in the techniques and methods of performance appraisal and must recognize and regard its contributions to organizational effectiveness.The scheme should be designed with just a hardly a(prenominal) purposes. Appraisal systems designed to improve performance should not simultaneously consider wages, salary or promotion because the roles of judge and adviser are not complimentary and should therefore be separated.3. Know the different schools of management ruling that have been developed over the last CenturyCLASSIFICATION OF oversight THEORIESAs mentioned earlier, there are several schools of thought in management. isolated from the autocratic or authoritarian or pre-scientific era (i.e., earlier to 1880) of the other(a) dot, several schools of management thought are identified and classified in several ways by safes. It is interesting to note that while proto(prenominal) literary productions on management principles came from experienced practitioners, the more recent writings tend to come from academic theorists, of whom have had no direct experience in organisational management. During the history of management a number of more or less separate schools of management thought have emerged, and each sees management from its own has classified the management theories into the following six groups i) The management process schoolii) The empirical schooliii) The human behavioural schooliv) The social systems schoolv) The decision possibleness schoolvi) The mathematical school. . Adding one more style or approach of his own Evans discusses eleven basic styles cited by Herbert Hicks in his books the management of organisations Again leaving the early perspectives, Hitt and others (1979) classify management theories into d euce-ace broad groups.i) Classical management possibleness.ii) Neo mere management possibilityiii) advance(a) management theory Under each group a some schools of thought are identified. These three groups of schools of management thought, are shortly in vogue and found adequate for the purpose.CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT possibleness (1880s- mid-twenties)Classical management theory consists of a group of similar ideas on the management of organisations that evolved in the late 19th century and early twentieth century. The Classical school is sometimes called the traditional school of management among practitioners. This school, evolved as a result of the industrial revolution, in response to the growth of stupendous organisations and in contrast to the handicraft system that existed till then. It contains three branches, namely, scientific management, administrative principles and bureaucratic organisation. The predominant and common characteristic to all three branches is the emphas is on the economic rationality of management and organisationThe economic rationality of the individual employee at work assumes that people choose the course of action that maximises their economic reward. In other words, economic rationality assumes that people are motivated by economic incentives and that they make choices that yield the-greatest pecuniary benefit. Thus, to get employees to work hard, managers should appeal to their monetary desires. These assumptions are based on a pessimistic view of human nature. While they are unbent to some extent, they also overlook some optimistic aspects. Classical theorists recognize human emotions but felt that human emotions could be controlled by a logical and rational structuring of jobs and work. The primary contributions of the classical school of management includes (i) application of science to the practice of management (ii) development of the basic management functions and (iii) marijuana cigarette and application of specifi c principles of management.NEO-CLASSICAL THEORY (1920s-1950s)The Traditional classical theory and its principles are attacked on the ground that they are contradictory, pay comminuted attention to motivation, and make hasty pronouncements on what should be done, without examining the assumptions Management Perspectives underlying such pronouncements. As such, these principles do not represent the heart of knowledge of management but a small part of the total body of administrative management. As a reaction to schools of classical theory, which over emphasised the mechanical and physiological characters of management, came up the schools of neoclassical theory, with a more human-oriented approach and emphasis on the needs, drives, behaviours and attitudes of individuals. Another impetus was the development of the concepts of industrial psychology around the akin time. Two important groups, namely, human relations school and behavioural schools emerged during 1920s and 1930s under the neoclassical theory. Names of two persons, often mentioned, from the period earlier to neoclassical theory, are Robert Owen and Andrew Ure. As Young Welsh grind owner, Robert Owen was first one to emphasise human needs of employees as early as 1800. Andrew Ike has incorporated human factors in his book The Philosophy of Manufactures print in 1835. The human relations movement of the 1940s and the 1950s fill many gaps in knowledge about business organisations, but it did little to fill major gaps in management theory, or to create a untried and viable theory of management.MODERN MANAGEMENT THEORYModern management theory highlights, the complexity of the organisation as well as individuals and the diversity of their needs, motives, aspirations and potentials. As a result, one time status or universal management principles are impracticable. The complexities require intricate managerial strategies for relations with people and organisation. As against the rational economic man of the classical theory and the social person view of neoclassical theory, the complex employee view is the expound of modem management theory. The complex employee view holds that people are both complex and variable. They have many motives, learn parvenu motives through experience and motives vary from organisation to organisation and department to department. Complex interactions relate the employee and the organisation. There is no single managerial strategy that works for all people at all times. Managers can employ different strategies at different times and for different persons. Analytical tools may be useful while applying managerial strategies. Four important modern management theories arising out of the complex employee view, are systems theory, contingency theory, organisational humanism, and management science. This horizontal surface of management theory represents the work of revisionist researchers unite streams of efforts in the behavioural sciences with those i n mathematics, statistics, and the use of computers. Naturally many revisionists are behavioural scientists whose research extended beyond the human relations area. It is the almighty combination of systems theorists, operations research specialists, decision theorists, statisticians, computer experts, and others skilled in quantitative research and decision methods. Rigorous research and testing of propositions, employ behavioural, statistical and mathematical tools, characterised this school of thought. This period is also called synthesis period.As against the predominantly engineering-oriented quantitative theorists in classical theory, industrial psychologists together with sociologists and utilise anthropologists who dominated the neoclassical theory, it is the revisionist researchers, who dominated the modern management theory and questioned old tenets, developed fresh hypotheses, and offered better explanations of organisational and managerial behaviour. The revisionist m ovement appears to have begun with Litchfields propositions publish in the first issue of Administrative Science Quarterly in 1956. They questioned principles developed by deductive reasoning in classical theory but did not discard all of the early theories. A logical extension of application of management knowledge into non-business areas such as education, judicature and health, is a significant contribution of the modem management theory.It is interesting to note that the classical theory was organisation centered with emphasis on efficiency having process or functional approach, based on deductive evidence and descriptive research. Neoclassical theory had the person-centered approach, was increasingly experimental, and almost remained descriptive and highly deductive. On the other hand, revisionists used behavioural and quantitative tools and remained more inductive, experimental, rigorous and send off. According to the modern management school, management is an exercise in l ogic and applies itself to situations, that can be reduced to unitised measurements and handled with quantitative methods, where computers have an increasing role to play.4. catch the problems of introducing and implementing change in todays workforceImplementation of a new idea is a more difficult task rather than just proposing it. This is peculiarly true in organizations where putting in place a new practice requires many peoples understanding, agreement, and willingness to act. To implement one needs to convince peoples minds and hearts. It requires complete planning and documentation as its a switch of an organization from an vivacious practiced system to a new one. Planning the necessary semipolitical moves of the implementation requires willful and deliberate planning to capture the potentially self-destructive organizational forces in change and use them to the changing organizations advantage system.. The planning and documentation of the new system includes not just t he listing of the move which are to be followed but also designing the work that can help people understand the new setup (Wick, 2005).TRANSITION OR IMPLEMENTATION PLANThe transition or implementation plan provides a bridge from the way things are carried out currently to the change you want in the organization. Making a detailed plan of transition is the only way for the change to take place completely and leads to desired future. E-mailing change or verbally ordering things to change wont make a new idea happen permanently. There are four stages of the plan Current state, Transition state, Future desired state and Clean up (Wick, 2005). If new things are not planned before hand and are implemented and practiced instantly then it will directly lead to clean up- a faux new state. In such check over the elements of the new and former system are combined hap- hazardly with a few future concepts and people spend most of their organizational time exhausting to clean up the impromptu mess. This will lead to confusion andcuckoos nest in the organization. Failed implementations can be avoided in the organization by expert construction and maintenance of your implementation plan (Wick, 2005). The need of organizational change arises due to environmental forces and conditions. For the survival of an organization, it must be fully undefended of planning and handling the change (Smith E. and Jones D., 1996). A good till effectively deals with the changes affecting the work environment and take measures to ensure continued growth and success of the organization (Doe, 1996). The objective of this paper is to identify and analyze an organizational problem, and to describe the implementation of a change to solve the problem using a change theory. appointment OF A PROBLEMThe dissatisfaction expressed by employees in the work setting is often the first indication of a problem (B.Moore, 1997). Sharp managers constantly keep a watch on their work environment and are especia lly concerned for employee complaints that repeatedly occur (Doe S., 1996). The sensibleness and knowledge of a manger about the organizations work environment and its issues problems help him identify and solve the problem at an early stage before they become bigger issues. The engineering department employees of XYZ plant are unhappy with the required use of time clock to document their workday. An informal telephonic survey conducted of eight businesses revealed several methods for documenting and recording time worked. The most frequently used method allowed professionals to account for their time by rentting the number of days worked to the Payroll Department at the end of each pay period. A group of engineering department employees submitted a proposal to the manger for consideration of survey results and a trial implementation of a new method for documenting time worked. The manager has receivedconsent of the administration to review the proposal and submit his recommendati ons to the Chief decision maker Officer within the next two weeks (Smith, 1999).IDENTIFICATION OF A CHANGE THEORYThe Kurt Lewins theory of planned change is used as a model for implementing change in organization. The three phases identified in Lewins change process include unfreezing, moving or changing, and refreezing. The organization can overcome obstacles and bring about effective change by using this model (Hall, 1997).APPLICATION OF THE CHANGE PROCESSThe change at the XYZ plant could ideally be implemented by using Lewins model. This change model has widely been used as it (a) can be employ to any setting, (b) is easy to follow, and (c) incorporates strategies to identify and resolve obstacles during the change process (B.Moore, 1997). The model will be used to describe the trial implementation of the venerate system method for employees in the Engineering Department to document their time worked. The Lewins model proposes changes that are relatively straightforward and af fects small number of employees within the organization (Hall, 1997).UNFREEZINGThe identification of a need for change and the establishment of a receptive climate is the first step of the change process. To unfreeze the environment, one has to follow the strategy of identifying obstacles in the way of palmy change, communicating with employees of the department about the problem and its solution and outlining the benefits associated with the new change. In this way, the employees will support the proposed change, but more work is required to convince the administration (Hall, 1997). sorrowful OR CHANGINGChange is the second phase of the process. This involves the implementation of new setup, ideas, values, or behaviors that focus and leads to the actual change. For the XYZ Plant, the strategy might include intelligibly defined details about the new policy for documenting time worked, managing shield to the change, development of a written procedure for the change, and a way to a ware all employees when the change will take place. The recommendation to the Chief Executive Officer comprises of all these details, and formally developed if the trial period is successful (Hall, 1997).REFREEZINGThe third phase involves refreezing new behavior patterns into place. In this phase the payoff of the adopted change is strategically done until it is integrated. Incentives are given and some other motivators can be used to encourage the employees and to increase the acceptableness and likelihood of the new setup. The engineers would be motivated by recognizing their professional status. The management would be incented by the decreased costs due to simplified record keeping (Hall, 1997). Several sources support Lewins change model as an effective tool for implementing planned organizational change (Hall, 1997 International Business Institute, 1998). Here, it was used to illustrate the implementation of an organizational change in response to a problem occurred in engin eering department XYZ Plant. Though change is ineluctable but yet it can produce utter confusion in a work environment if it is not managed effectively.
The look for approaches adopted and regularityologyThe aims of this paper argon value the interrogation approaches adopted and methodology used in assigned search reports. Moreover, reflect and point out the strengths and weaknesses of reports. hearty question is a scientific choose of society and it purposes atomic number 18 exploring, describing or explaining the tender phenomena. Thus, there are major methodological approaches which are duodecimal approach and qualitative approach.Firstly, correspond to Alan Bryman (2008), the quantitative question can be construed as a enquiry strategy which emphasis the quantification in arrangement and analysis data and involves a deductive approach to the relationship betwixt theory and look which the evince is placed on the theories testing. Moreover, it has incorporated the habituates and norms of the natural scientific model and of advantageousness in particular and there is an external, objective, friendly reality (or e ntity).Objective reality exists beyond the human mind (tec).Secondly, qualitative query can be construed as a research strategy which emphasis in the words in collection and analysis data and involves an inductive approach to the relationship between the theory and the research which emphasis is placed the generation of theories. Thus, it has rejected the practice and norms of the natural scientific model and emphasis on individuals interpret the hearty world. There is no absolute external, objective, accessible reality (or entity) which is constituted by how the human mind (researcher) perceives, thinks, interprets or experiences about it.Furthermore, the most common methodologies deep down the fond research include experiments, adopt, in-depth Interview, participant observationPart 1Youth-this research aims to investigate the factors conductive to the success of young mickle evolution up in low-income families and exam the factors that help them to their lives from failure , poverty and social projection. It besides identifies a range of indicators and necessary conditions for the positive development of them. Thus, evaluate the commission which the functions of service of process participation, association networks and various family factors support them in different areas.Youth-the research focus on the effects of service participation, friendship networks, and family support on develop psychical outcomes in a study of young plenty from low-income families in Hong Kong. In this research, there are three research hypotheses as follow, firstly, a young psyche who has received vocational training, services provided by social workers or other helping professionals will have greater hazard for positive development despite his/her deprived family background. Secondly, a young person who has mend friendship networks will have a greater hazard for positive development despite his/her deprived family. Lastly, a young person with better family supp ort will have a greater probability for positive development despite his/her deprived family background.Youth-In this research report, it used the check research. tally to Earl Babbie (2008), the survey research is the popular social research method which is the administration of questionnaires to a sample of respondents selected from slightly population and it is appropriate for do descriptive studies of larger population. Thus, the questionnaires can be administered through the self-administered questionnaires, face-to-face interviews or telephone surveys. For this report, the research used the quantitative survey of 405 young people recruited from the schools and integrated younker service centres in Hong Kong. Furthermore, as the researcher investigates the factors found on the offspring development indicators which are according to the scholars, therefore, this research study used the deductive analysis which is a form of reasoning in conclusions are formulated about pa rticulars from general or universal premises.Youth-In this report, researcher used the survey as the tool in social research. According to Babbie (2008), the survey includes a question which is either open-ended or close-ended and employs an oral or written method for asking these questions. The goal of a survey is to gain information from the selected group and the issuance is used to investigate the social phenomena. Thus, in this report, a quantitative survey of 405 young people from the low-income families was conducted to look the factors relevant to their development and success. Also, the respondents were between 17 to 21 days erstwhile(a) -the critical age range from teenage transit to young adulthood. Therefore, the result can investigate the factors conductive to the success of young people growth up in low-income families and exam the factors that help them to their lives from failure, poverty and social exclusionYouth-In the findings of research report, over a half o f the respondents were female, their average age is 18.33 years and around 55% are completed senior secondary breeding and 36% has matriculation qualification. Also, most of the respondents are students at the time of the data collection. For the family background of respondents, most of their parents are low educated and employed, living in public housing and low-income. Thus, the result showed that receipt of social work service has positive effects on academic achievement, work performance and mental health. In Addition, the data demonstrated that the size of friendship networks had a earthshaking positive impact on work performance and showed that having more friends with better educational achievement, high employee status and positive social experience contributed to pro-social behaviour. Finally, it evaluated the expectation of youth development resulting from various factor that parents material status had material positive effect on respondents financial adequacy and th eir social behaviour.Part 2Youth-In this report, it is used the quantitative approach as the research methodology and used the survey as the tool in the research. As the researcher set the quantitative survey and hypothesis for given topic, the purpose of respondents should be present in numerical. Therefore, in quantitative approach, the data collection is easier to summaries, analysis and measurable because the answer for respondent converting to numerical format. However, there is some weakness of quantitative approach. Firstly, since the respondents recruited from the school and integrated youth centers, some of the youth may not be counter as the respondents (e.g. Hikikomori).it implies that the survey research represents the least minimally appropriate to all respondent and it is often have the appearance _or_ semblance superficial in coverage of complex topic. Secondly, the validity of quantitative research is heavily rely on the sampling because most of the quantitative r esearch used survey as the tool, in this report, researcher only recruited 405 youth people as the respondents for investigate the factors conductive to the success of young people growing up in low-income families and exam the factors that help them to their lives from failure, poverty and social exclusion, compare to the large population of the youth group, the result cannot be representing for the group. Moreover, the quantitative research is inflexibility caused the study design is standardized, it would be unaware the unfermented variables importance. As the researcher focus the study on testing the hypothesis and indicate the several factor, the research should be neglect the other factors which related to the positive development of the youth.Part 3Youth-The study just mentioned the respondents are recruited from 13 secondary school and 18 integrated school regain in different districts, however, It has blurred to explain the method for sampling the representation for data collection. Moreover, the definition of the factors of service participation and social capital are undefined. For example, there is no illustration of the positive social experiences in the friendship network, the term seems to be obscure .Also, since the research has targeted the respondents between 17-21 years honest-to-god which is the critical age range in the transitioj to young adulthood,and the time that is graphReferenceBabbie, Earl R. (2007), The practice of social research, 11th ed. Belmont, CA Thomson WadsworthCrotty Michael (1998), The foundations of social research meaning and perspective in research process, London Sage PublicationsBryman Alan (2008), Social research methods, New York Oxford University Inc