Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Mba Statement of Purpose

Writing a MBA statement of purpose requires you to really think about yourself and your goals. It helps you to see why you want to enter a MBA program and assures you that you are making the right move. More importantly, it shows your chosen university that same thing. In order to ensure that you really get your point across and that you tell the school what they want to know, it helps to learn a bit more about what colleges look for in a MBA statement of purpose.You can look at multiple Sample MBA Statement of Purpose essays, but unless you get an actual Sample MBA Statement of Purpose essay form the school to which you are applying you may not hit the nail on the head. You may cover what they want to hear and you may not give them all the details they need to approve your application for admissions. A good Sample MBA Statement of Purpose will show you what the college wants and give you a great guide for writing your own. In general, colleges want to see the same types of things fr om a purpose statement.The bottom line is that they all want to see what the statement says about you. They want to learn who you are and why you should be in their program. Understanding this and looking at your essay from their point of view will help you to write the best possible statement. Put yourself in the role of an admission's officer. Consider the fact that you are reading thousands of these essays. Think about what you would like to see. Think about how your essay would appeal to someone who is reading these purpose statements everyday. Does it stand out? Is there anything unique about it or about you that will make them take notice?The admission's officers already know about your great test scores and where you got your undergraduate degree. Do not waste their time telling them abut things they already know. Mix in some interesting things that will catch their attention. Give them something they will want to read. You have to understand that you are not the only applyin g and you essay is not the only one they will read. You have to find a way to make yourself stand out and prove you are different from the rest. You can assume that everyone who is applying has good test scores and good work experience, so you have to go beyond that.You can not rely on your academics to get you by and that is the whole point of this purpose statement. When you sit down to write your statement of purpose you need to keep all of these things in mind. Your purpose statement gives life to your admissions application. It is the one thing that you control completely and the one thing that will show your personality. Do not let the chance go to show who you are by writing a dry statement if purpose. Write something that will make the admission's officers say they need you at their school

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

River Restoration – Soft Engineering The River Cole, Oxford

The River Cole forms part of the border between the counties, Oxfordshire and Wiltshire. It is a tributary of the River Thames and joins it near Lechlade. Many mills have altered the river by straightening and polluting it. Much of its upper course has been built over due to urbanisation and so the exact location of the source is unknown. It also ?ows through National Trust land. The River Cole had become very polluted and needed restoration. Restoration is returning a river to its natural state after arti?cial alteration.The river needed  restoration in order to change the water course, improve the water quality and manage the bank-side vegetation. In 1994, River Restoration Project was set up in order to show how contemporary restoration techniques could help damaged ecosystems thrive. The project was run by the RRP (River Restoration Project), the Environment Agency, English Nature, the National Trust, the Countryside Commission and the EU. Using the EU LIFE money, three demonst ration projects were set up, helping to restore over a 2km stretch of the River.The project was completed in 1996. In order to bring the river bed back in line with the ?oodplain, the river bed below Coleshill Bridge was raised. More gravel rif?es (fast ?owing midstream ridges) were introduced, as well as some small weirs (small barriers allowing pools to form behind them). Due to the redevelopment of the river bed, it ran at a higher level than a large stretch of the river. A new meandering channel was cut allowing the water to travel at the same height. Parts of the old river were kept and acts as backwaters.During high this provides shelter for ?sh, birds and insects, adding to the growing biodiversity of the river. The meanders also cause more regular ?ooding of the neighboring ?elds, creating water meadows and increasing agricultural productivity. The ancient course of the River Cole has been able to be recreated. This is due to the ?oodwaters, caused by meandering, restoring t he ?ood meadows along the western side of the Cole Mill. The Cole Mill is hoped to be put back into occasional operation by the RRP.However, the water levels in the stream ?owing near the mill must be raised in order for this to be possible. They plan to develop the River Leat (the feeder stream – the tributary that empties in to the River Cole) into a long lake. The plan for wet pasture and reed beds along the sides of the river will accompany this development. These will contribute in cleansing the streams that have been polluted by silt, fertiliser and treated sewage. The restoration has many bene?ts. It has allowed riverside organisms and wetland wildlife to thrive in the river and on the ?oodplain, playing a huge part in nature conservation.Fisheries now have an greater numbers of ?sh of different species. Due to installation of vegetation, there has been an increased interception of pollutants. Sediment has also been naturally settling on the ?oodplain and river bed. Th e restoration also acts as a ?ood defence. Due to the enlarged ?oodplain and the backwaters created by the old river, additional ?ood storage has been created. The restoration has also helped the attraction of recreational activities near the river. The natural landscape created by the restored river has received strong public support.Therefore, the River Restoration Project has been a success for the River Cole. This is thanks to the clear environmental bene?ts. Although the changes had to be paid for, there are economic bene?ts to the restoration. The surrounding landscape is now seen as a much more pleasant environment and so people are more likely to pay for recreational activities to do with the river. The social bene?ts are also clear. The cleaner waters of the river are both aesthetically and morally pleasing to general society. This leads to happier locals as their river is being taken care of.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Teaching and Classroom Management in Religious Education Essay

Teaching and Classroom Management in Religious Education - Essay Example The RE is the establishment of the faith and responsiveness to the presence of God, to practice his orders and to lead a life with the patterns, which are given by God to his creatures through his messengers. Religion is the faith, faith in God. The RE first begins with the lap of the mother. Parents are the first educators of a child in the development of their faith in God. The values and thoughts, once developed in God are everlasting and parents are responsible to develop believes through in-formal way of teaching in pre-school days of child. However, the comprehensive and systematic study of the religion needs a person who knows well about faith, religion and has firm belief in God. A teacher is a person who builds a base of pupil with the relationship between faith and life in a manner that makes the pupils curious to learn more about religion. According to Religious Education Curriculum Directory for Catholic Schools (1996: p. 10) the outcome of RE may be "religiously literate young people who have the knowledge, understanding and skills, appropriate to their age and capacity, to think spiritually, ethically and theologically and who are aware of the demands of religious commitment in every day life". Discipline is the pre-requisite for proper learning and teaching process in the school and classroom. As for as RE is concerned, the discipline is more important because it needs more attention and concentration of pupils to learn. The pupils need limits and the teacher should manage properly when he is in the classroom. So, classroom management is essential both for a teacher and a student, to develop and promote faith in God. Good classroom management means, to provide the pupils enough freedom and courage to discuss among themselves about the context of the subject within discipline and limits. Pupils should know the limits and teacher should not make them cross the limits. Teaching of Religious Education (RE) The success of the teaching of RE lies in the quality and dedication of the teachers. So, recruitment of able and devoted teachers is a pre-requisite of a good teaching in the subject of RE. I think, the proper way to teach the subject of religion is to involve pupils in the process of teaching. There should be exercises, writing activities, and group discussions and brainstorming through questions/answers. In the classroom, the teacher should judge the feelings, motivations and opinions of their pupils in order to manage classrooms more effectively. Encourage the pupils to express their ideas, opinions and thoughts and know the religious trends of their pupils. Teach them the objectives of the subject within the limits of the time. Religious Education: from Classroom to Society Classroom of the RE plays an important role in the life of a pupil. It is the place, which either makes his mind social or fundamentalist. Understanding an issue, by uncovering the network of interrelationships, not only leads to a new awareness but also usually offers a wealth of ideas (Altrichter et al 1993: p. 160). So, try to develop positive ideas in mind of your pupils regarding religion and society. ICT in Religious Education (RE) ICT stands for "Information Communication Technology". ICT in RE means the use of modern techniques and approaches to understand religious affairs. It is a powerful tool that can improve the teaching

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Why Evolution Is True Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Why Evolution Is True - Term Paper Example The initial chapter of this book reveals how Coyne critically defines each keyword essential in the evolutionary theory. A fascinating finding is the author simply defines evolution as change over time. This approach is diverse from the manner other writers have given different meanings to the term ‘evolution. Looking at several articles, various writers have defined evolution as change in allele frequency over time, sufficiency of neo-Darwinian mechanism i.e. mutation, drift, and selection, and the universal common ancestry. With the way Coyne has explained the term ‘evolution, readers can understand clearly the term, this is in contrast to the manner other writers who have tackled the evolution have confused readers. This does not mean that the author disputes the fact that allele frequency change over a given time frame, in addition,, he does not disagree on the concept of natural selection in the evolution process. According to my own understanding, Coyne has embraced the concept of common ancestry, thus this out-rules any controversial issue (Coyne, 2009). In this chapter, the key points revolve around the truth of gradualism and natural selection, as well as mutations to account for the diversity in life. In this chapter, Coyne goes on to defend common ancestry as a foundation of evolution. This chapter deals with fossil evidence as a component of common ancestry. In the initial part of this chapter, the author outlines the process of fossilization. He also provides an introduction to radioisotope dating techniques; useful in approximating the time of life of rocks. The author goes on to say that fossil data simply shows a trend of simpler living beings preceding more complex ones. This is a perfect evidence of common ancestry (Coyne, 2009). This chapter covers three evolutionary transitions that were documented by the fossil record. They are the evolution of

Saturday, July 27, 2019

#1 - the effectiveness of graphic organizers #2 -Learning vocabulary Article

#1 - the effectiveness of graphic organizers #2 -Learning vocabulary through reading - Article Example There were earlier studies in the area, though limited in scope, which have brought out the positive aspects of graphic organizers. The reviewed study aims to provide additional knowledge in the recently implemented systems where remedial students and students with learning disabilities are mainstreamed, and it could ostensibly lead to significant research in the field. The review of literature is carried out promptly, mentioning studies in the field by Bergerud, Lovitt, and Horton, Darch and Carnine, Sinatra et.al., Scruggs et.al., Mastropieri et. al., and so on. The review goes in detail to the significance of their studies and critically evaluates them, establishing the necessity of the present study. It also establishes a theoretical framework, holds scope to make use of the effectiveness of graphic organizers for students with learning handicap to the relatively new aspect of mainstream instruction. The authors succeed in relating previous research to their work. The study has three research questions which are hypothesized in affirmative answers. The questions are: 1. are the graphic organizers more effective than self-study condition for the three classifications mentioned? 2. do graphic organizers produce consistent effects in middle school and high school across a variety of content area classes? and 3. can teachers successfully implement graphic organizers with heterogeneous groups through teacher-directed and student-directed procedures? The hypothesis is consistent with theory and known facts. It is explained as testable, and promised to provide expected results. The methodology is explained with sufficient clarity so as to allow future researchers to replicate it for their purposes. The population used is selected from nine whole classes of three each from middle school science, middle school social studies and high school social studies. From each subject area, two classes are randomly selected to serve as experimental groups and

Friday, July 26, 2019

The Anti-War Message Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Anti-War Message - Essay Example In terms of style, both authors definitely differ and this can be attributed also to the fact that the historical context of the novel and poem are not the same. In terms of substance also these works have differences, which derive from the difference in social, emotional, and historical context in which the characters exist. But more significantly, the differences also stem from the fact the involvement of these authors in the war that they are protesting against also differs. Nevertheless, both these writers have been able to articulate their opposition to the war in a profound manner through the portrayal of appropriate characters and situations in their works. â€Å"In the Lake of the Woods† narrates the story of an individual’s struggle to deal with the memories of the Vietnam War even after it draws to a conclusion. One can consider O’Brien to be an authority on the subject as he has served in Vietnam as an infantryman during the war. He not only has witnes sed the bloodshed but he has been directly involved in it. Thus, O’Brien also shares the trauma that other American servicemen experienced while fighting a war, which they believe is unjustified and futile. The feeling of guilt a soldier suffers, for engaging in a war that he opposes, becomes palpable due to the intensity of his personal experience. The readers are able to connect with the story more actively as the author’s opposition to the war is presented through the perspective of the soldier and not from the vantage point of the anti-war activists, who were more popular during the times when the Vietnam War was at its peak. Thus, his arguments against the war, founded on psychological and emotional manifestations, remain highly credible and convincing. He may have cited J W Appel and G W Beebe when he writes, â€Å"Psychiatric casualties are as inevitable as gunshot and shrapnel wounds in warfare† (O’Brien 27). However, he does not because he believ es that such a conclusion is intellectually accurate. He has seen his comrades suffer psychological problems resulting from the war and he himself may have experienced the anguish of going through such mental agonies. John Wade, the main character in the story, can be construed as a personification of O’Brien’s argument against the war. It must be emphasized though that such argument are best defended and promoted only when psychological issues arise, which obviously occur after the individual returns home from battlefront. This condition, which is often regarded as post-traumatic stress disorder, can be devastating to an individual. On the other hand, the conditions surrounding Julia Alvarez are much different to those of O’Brien. Her poem, â€Å"How I Learned to Sweep,† is greatly influenced by these. Alvarez looks at the war from the perspective of a non-participant. She finds the war disgusting not because it directly affects her personally. She does not suffer psychological or emotional traumas arising from a war but she does perceive the violence and bloodshed that soldiers have to go through while fighting a war. Whereas O’Brien witnesses the horrors that his fellow soldiers go through, Alvarez expresses pity for both the fighters and civilians caught in the war. O’Brien’s work is the result of his empathy while Alvarez displays sympathy in her poem when she writes, â€Å"I swept all the harder when/ I watched a dozen of them die.† Obviously, the poet is illustrating her reaction on the sight of so much death. Alvarez

History of fox news Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

History of fox news - Essay Example The Fox News Channel (FNC) is available to a little more than 85 million households in the United States, and even more internationally. The network is based in the U.S. and broadcasts primarily out of its studio in New York City. The Fox News Channel is currently the highest rated cable News Channel. Initially founded by the Australian-American mogul Rupert Murdoch in 1996, the FNC has grown to become the most influential cable news network today. Rupert Murdoch initially created the Fox News Network to represent the conservative point of view in America. At the time, in 1996, Murdoch felt that there was a great need for this niche to be filled in media, as at the time the majority of media was predominantly liberal. The network was designed with the intention of grabbing the attention of viewers. The visual presentation the network uses has been very influential in the presentation of news. Colorful and attention grabbing graphics were designed to constantly remain on the screen, as well as textboxes displaying one-liners summarizing the current topics. This was believed to incite the viewer's interests and increase their understanding of any message the network was attempting to relay. Another attention getter designed by the network is the Fox News Alert, it was designed to interrupt regular programming when breaking stories occurred. The news alerts were designed with swooshing graphics that would fill up the screen and a sharp chiming noise. (Fig1, Wikipedia) This is just an example of the aggressive tactics Murdoch used to launch the network. To rush the networks accessibility, Murdoch paid 11$ per subscribers to cable companies to increase the channels distribution. This was a revolutionary This conflict has led to much controversy surrounding the network. The Controversy In a survey done by the Project for Excellence in Journalism, in 2004, the article cited Fox News as the single news outlet that strikes most journalists as taking a particular ideological stance (2006). Corresponding with this, the Democratic National Committee identified Fox News as a rightwing outlet (York, 2006). On CNN's Larry King during a Jan 17, 2007 interview with the Chicago Sun-Times, King spoke on his opinion of the Network, They're Republican a brand. They're an extension of the Republican Party with some exceptions, [like] Greta van Susteren. But I don't begrudge them that. [Fox CEO] Roger Ailes is an

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Violence Against Women Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Violence Against Women - Assignment Example The Dreamworlds 3 was produced in the year 2007. It is a documentary that presented the history of music using MTV’s with sexual imageries in order to draw the attention of people. It presented the reasons behind that sexual imageries in music videos are all about women. In this documentary, sexual imageries of women are presented as to attract men, desiring for sex in the absence of men, and the quality of being a feminine is always over powered by powerful men. It also presented some aspects how women attract men through their dresses, movements of the body and using energetic activities. It also presented how pornographic imaginations, ways of how women look in the video degrade women. At the end of the documentary, the film maker gives the purpose of this film and presented statistics about some violence of women particularly in America. From the video I do believe that the film maker’s message is for the betterment of a society that has a revolting behavior. These music videos are reflections of how society thinks about women who are lesser than men. Women are always considered sexual prey, for example, in school campuses in which fraternities exist. In order to enter into that kind of organization, violent sex should be done. Aside from using alcohol, facilitation of rape is practiced in order to give emphasis on the importance of maleness among the members but this thing lowers the position of women in the eyes of the members of this kind of group. In my opinion, the film does not obliged viewers to adopt the conclusion of Jhally but instead to develop their own critical eyes and to convey the breeds of these sexual images that can be found in music videos. These music videos breed violence against women such as rape, sexual assaults, harassments, verbally and physically. One of the most violent breeds of the combination of music and pornography in music videos is rape. Women’s appearance is one of the main reason men do this kind of violence to women. It is considered that the appearance of women made men helpless in terms of sexual pleasure. Men see the appearance of women especially the way they dressed. If a woman dresses with a very seductive way then some men think that the woman is seducing although the woman does not have that kind of intention. But many don’t agree with the idea that to avoid getting rape is to avoid dressing in a seductive manner. In the year 2011, at Toronto, there was a so called â€Å"slutwalk† wherein many marched for the purpose of not agreeing with the advise of a police officer telling students that the best way to avoid getting raped was to avoid dressing like a ’slut’. These people who participated in the said slutwalk are claiming that instead of telling to the women on how they dress, they should focus and warn those that are abusing women to avoid abusing and assaulting women so that they will avoid going into jail. They are angry for blaming th e women of such violence that are happening to them. Women are the main victims but in the end they are being blamed for what is happening to them. Pornographizing is one of the main issues that lead to the violence of women. Men are relating to the images of women. Images such as in music videos which have sexually images that excites and wrings for sexual desire. Because of these images, it may lead

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Idealized versus Real Identity in Carson's Audubon Essay - 2

Idealized versus Real Identity in Carson's Audubon - Essay Example For Carson,   James Audubon’s realist works are not authentic because they signify forced renditions of natural birds. She presents a unique notion of the difference between substance and form in human identity. In â€Å"Audubon,† Carson uses image, diction, sarcasm, and metaphor to argue that, when people are blinded with their love for physical appearance and social stratification, they cannot perceive the difference between human form and substance and see the truth about their identities.The poem employs images of inauthentic portrayals of birds to depict the disparity between people’s perception and the reality of their identity. The images of the birds cannot be trusted as truthful because they are dead, in the same way, that perceptions of humanity tend to be false because people base them on idealistic, but inaccurate, views of themselves. Carson puts open and close quotation marks on the phrase â€Å"drawn from nature† (2) because Audubon did no t paint them as they are. Audubon paints them, not as they are, but as how he wants them to be. Carson accentuates that â€Å"†¦[Audubon] hated the unvarying shapes/of traditional taxidermy† (5-6). She suggests that he is not satisfied with the roughness of actual animal nature. He prepares them to be more palatable to his tastes and audience. But to change nature indicates deception. Some people also enjoy deceiving others with appearances. They will enhance or hide their natural features, in order for them to be acceptable in their society. Furthermore, a number of people take pains in being who they are not. Carson emphasizes how Audubon changes what a bird must be, according to how he wants them to be seen.   She describes the â€Å"flexible armatures of bent wire and wood/ on which he arranged bird skin and feathers† (7-8).   Nothing is natural in his paintings because the actions of the birds and their appearances are contrived.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Australias economic growth relies on Asias continuing demand for Essay - 2

Australias economic growth relies on Asias continuing demand for resources - Essay Example However, there are indications by several observers to the effect that the situation is likely to change especially with the euro zone crisis and the fact that there might be a reduction in the dependence of minerals by large Asian markets like China (Das 2012, p.2). Economic growth may refer to the relative increase in production of goods and services by a country over a definite period. Australia’s economic growth therefore means that it has to continue improving is production in the mineral sector that has been a major driver of its economy. The Asian market refers to the countries in the Asian continent that have continued to import the minerals from Australia. Consequently, the intention of this discussion is to ascertain whether Australia’s economy has largely depended on the Asian market. To further illustrate this, two listed companies that are engaged in exports will be examined. There have been several sentiments that have been put forth to suggest that the co untry has been reliant on the Asian market especially for its energy and minerals exports. To begin, the Australian economy has been on a sharp rise in decades as a result of its connection with the Chinese market. The country’s mineral sector has largely benefited from the rapidly expanding Chinese economy that has been a great consumer of mineral ores. To illustrate this fact, there are indications that about 23% of Australia’s exports go directly to the Chinese market (Das 2012, p. 3). Moreover, this figure is even likely to be reviewed upwards given that some of the exports to Asian countries are further re-exported to China. As a result, it is stated that the terms of trade between the two nations has increased to over 40% since the year 2004. Capling (2008, p. 610) points the overdependence on the Asian market to the issue of globalization of trade among nations in the Asian

Monday, July 22, 2019

Electric Cars by Tesla Essay Example for Free

Electric Cars by Tesla Essay Tesla’s total assets is a total USD 361. 6M, with US sales alone of USD 116. 7M. Tesla boasts of two electric car models: The Tesla Roadster and the Tesla S model. As of January 2011, Tesla has taken about 3,500 reservations for the Model S and expects to begin delivering cars to customers in 2012. Tesla currently employs almost 900 full time employees and is aggressively recruiting employees for positions in its headquarters in Palo Alto, California; at its European headquarters in Maidenhead, UK; and at an increasing number of sales facilities throughout North America and Europe. Tesla plans to build the Model S in 2012 in Fremont, California in an assembly plant formerly operated by NUMMI, a now defunct joint venture of Toyota and General Motors. Tesla purchased a stake in the site in May 2010 for US$42 million, and opened the facility in October 2010 as the Tesla Factory. Tesla Roadster [pic][pic] The Tesla Roadster is a screaming-fast, all-electric two-seater sports car built on the frame of the Lotus Elise. Reduce our dependency on oil, and are cheaper to operate Electric cars are convenient: In one trip to the gas station, you can pump 330 kilowatt-hours of energy into a 10-gallon tank. It would take about 9 days to get the same amount of energy from household electric current. Fortunately, it takes hours and not days to recharge an electric car, because its much more efficient. And you never have to leave home to recharge! Electric cars are extremely simple. There’s no oil to change, no filters, no clutch, no fluids, no crazy mechanical systems. This makes the electric car so much cheaper to operate because there’s hardly any maintenance, like oil changes and emissions checks, that internal combustion cars require. Electric car cuts away our dependency on oil as well and frees us from the unpredictable oil price hikes and spikes that are so common these days. For the car savvy drivers, electric motors develop their highest torque from zero rpms—meaning fast (and silent) zero-to-60 acceleration times. This means they snap to life at the touch of the accelerator. It does 0–60 mph in 3. 7 seconds, making electric cars the fastest cars in the world. Electric cars can be direct drive, so there’s no transmission or complex gearbox. Power is applied smoothly and quietly. Acceleration is effortless. B. Historically, EVs have not been widely adopted because of limited driving range before needing to be recharged, long recharging times, and a lack of commitment by automakers to produce and market electric cars that have all the creature comforts of gas-powered cars. The other limitation beside range is cost. Electric cars have historically suffered from extreme lameness, largely because most attempts at building electric cars were aimed at the mid-price or low-end car market. Media blitz will follow the launch using television and print advertisements. Local glamour and sport magazines will be asked to feature the product. Problem with gray markets will not be an issue because the product will speak for itself and will cost more to copy at the state of our technology. Key cities in the Philippines will be targeted after the Manila debut and continuing media hype. Cebu and Bacolod will be good options to consider the expansion. They are both progressive cities with locals having penchant for European cars and sport cars as evidenced by car sales that are comparable to the Manila data.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Rapamycin And Cisplatin In Breast Cancers

Rapamycin And Cisplatin In Breast Cancers Recent gene expression profiling has identified five breast cancer subtypes, of which the basal-like breast cancers are the most aggressive and possess serious clinical challenges as there are currently no targeted therapies available. Although there is increasing evidence that these tumors confer specific sensitivity to cisplatin, its success is often compromised due to its dose-limiting nephrotoxicity and development of drug resistance. To overcome this limitation, our focus is to maximize the benefits associated with cisplatin therapy through drug combination strategies. Using a well-validated kinase inhibitors library, we showed that inhibition of mTOR, TGFà ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢RI, NFà ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ «B, PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathway sensitized the basal-like MDA-MB-468 cells to cisplatin treatment. Further evaluation demonstrated that combination of mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, and cisplatin generated significant drug synergism specifically in basal-like cells (MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231 and HCC1937). Th ese synergistic effects were not observed in the luminal-like T47D and MCF-7 cells. We further showed that the synergistic effects of rapamycin and cisplatin is mediated through p73. Treatment of rapamycin induced p73 upregulation and synergized cisplatin activity through activation of the p73 pathway. Depletion of endogenous p73 in basal-like cells abolished these synergistic effects suggesting that p73 is required for the rapamycin and cisplatin synergism. In conclusion, combination of mTOR inhibitors and cisplatin may be a useful therapeutic strategy in basal-like breast cancers. INTRODUCTION Recent identification of novel breast cancer subtypes with distinct biological features promises a more specific, effective and less toxic therapies to the patients. Through gene profiling, breast cancer can be categorized into five different subtypes with distinct clinical outcome. The five major subtypes of breast cancer are luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) overexpressing, normal-like and basal-like breast cancer [1, 2]. Of particular important is the basal-like breast cancer which accounts for 15-20% of breast cancers overall and confers a remarkably poor prognosis compared to other subtypes. Majority of basal-like breast cancers exhibit a triple-negative phenotype, characterized by the lack of expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) or HER2 amplification, and often have high frequency of p53 mutation [3, 4]. Due to the lack of expression of these receptors (ER, PR and HER2), patients with basal-like breast cancers usua lly do not response to hormonal therapy, Herceptin or chemotherapy [5, 6]. As a consequence, the mortality rate of basal-like breast cancer is relatively high in comparison with the non-basal subtype [1]. Numerous clinical studies are currently ongoing to identify novel therapy for treatment of basal-like breast cancers. These include the use of specific targeted therapeutic agents (e.g. Cetuximab, Dasatinib, Bevacizumab, Abraxane and Erlotinib) or conventional chemotherapeutics agents (e.g. cisplatin, doxorubicin, and paclitaxel), either as single agent or in combination, as first line therapy for basal-like breast cancers [7-9]. Cisplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent not commonly used for breast cancer, come to light in the management of basal-like breast cancer on account of evidence that breast cancer cells with basal-like phenotype confer a selective sensitivity towards cisplatin as compared to other chemotherapeutic agents. A variety of evidence suggests that basal-like breast cancers may share defects in BRCA1-associated pathways, of which DNA repair mechanism has been compromised [10]. Indeed, recent clinical studies have demonstrated the clear advantage of cisplatin in treatment of basal-like breast cancer compared to other chemotherapeutic agents [11, 12]. Nevertheless, dose-limiting toxicity including nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity have withold the wide-spread use of cisplatin in treating breast cancers in the clinic. To address this problem, we developed a high-throughput screening assay to rapidly identify new therapeutic agents that could synergize the antitumor effects of cisplatin in basal-like breast cancers. Through the use of a small chemical library that targets some of the most relevant oncogenic pathways in basal-like breast cancer, we show that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin incurred a specific synergistic effect with cisplatin in basal-like breast cancer cells. This synergistic effect is mediated in part through the induction and activation of p73 in the presence of rapamycin and cisplatin, respectively. Together, our findings demonstrate evidence of a synergistic relation between rapamycin and cisplatin in both inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis. This suggests that rapamycin and cisplatin may be a rational combination of a targeted therapy for the refractory basal-like breast cancers. Materials and Methods Cell lines and cell culture The human breast carcinoma cell lines MCF-7, T47D, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and HCC1937 were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA) and maintained in RPMI 1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 100 IU/ml penicillin and 100 ÃŽÂ ¼g/ml streptomycin (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) at 37 °C with 5% CO2. MTT cell proliferation assay Dose-response curves and IC50 values were determined using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) cell viability assay as described previously [4, 13]. Cells were seeded into 96-well plates for 24 hours at a density of 5 ÃÆ'- 103 cells/well. Serial drug dilutions were prepared in medium immediately before each assay, and viable cell masses following 3 days of drug exposure were determined by cell-mediated MTT reduction. Cell growth as well as drug activity was determined by measuring absorbance at 550 nm using an Anthos systems plate reader. Construction of IC50 mean graph The IC50 mean graph was constructed as defined by the Developmental Therapeutics Program of the National Cancer Institute (http://dtp.nci.nih.gov). The mean graph consists of positive (more sensitive) and negative (less sensitive) delta values, generated from a set of IC50 values by using a three-step calculation. The IC50 values for each of cell line against the tested compound were converted to log(IC50) values. For each tested compound, the log(IC50) values are averaged. Finally, the individual IC50 value is then subtracted from the average to generate the delta value. Positive delta values project to the right of the vertical line and represent cellular sensitivities to the test agent that exceed the mean. Negative values project to the left and represent cell line sensitivities to the test agent that are less than the average value. Library screening The Inhibitor Select„ ¢ chemical library which consists of 160 well-characterized, cell-permeable inhibitors was purchased from EMD Chemicals, USA. MDA-MB-468 cells at the logarithmic phase of growth were seeded into 96-well plate at a density of 5 ÃÆ'- 103 cells/well. Each compound was added to a final concentration of 10  µM in the absence or presence of 1  µM cisplatin. Plates were incubated for 72h at 37 °C. Cell proliferation was examined using MTT assay as described previously. Combination treatments that induce growth inhibition higher than those of the same doses used alone (p Drug interaction analysis Drug combination analysis was performed by using the method as described by Chou and Talalay [14]. Briefly, cells were seeded at 5 ÃÆ'- 103 cells/well in 96-well plates and treated with various concentrations of cisplatin and compound alone or in combination for 72h. Cell proliferation was measured in each well by MTT assay. Multiple drug dose-effect calculations and the combination index plots were generated using Calcusyn software (Biosoft, Cambridge, UK). Combination index, CI 1 indicate synergism, additive effect and antagonism, respectively. Apoptosis assays Quantitation of apoptosis by annexin V/PI staining was performed as described previously [3, 4]. Briefly, both floating and attached cells were collected 72h after drug treatments. Apoptotic cell death was determined using the BD ApoAlert annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Kit (BD Biosciences, USA) according to the manufacturers instructions, and cells were analyzed on a FACSCalibur flow cytometer using CellQuest Pro software (version 5.1.1; BD Biosciences, USA). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis Total RNA from cells was extracted using Qiagen RNA isolation kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA) according to the manufacturers protocol. First-strand cDNA was synthesized from total RNA using random hexamer primers and the SuperScript II system for RT-PCR (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, USA). Gene expression levels were measured by qPCR using the iQ SYBR Green Supermix reagent and an Biorad iQ5 real-time PCR detector system (Bio-Rad, Richmond, CA, USA). Data analysis was performed using Opticon Monitor Analysis Software V1.08. The expression of each gene was normalized to ÃŽÂ ²2M as a reference. The relative copy numbers were calculated from an 8-point standard curve generated from a 10-fold serial dilution of full-length cDNA constructs as described previously [3, 4]. Specific forward and reverse primer sequences are as follows : TAp73fwd, 5-GCACCACGTTTGAGCACCTCT-3; TAp73rev, 5- GCAGATTGAACTGGGCCATGA-3; ÃŽÂ ²2Mfwd, 5-AGCTGTGCTCGCGCTACTCTC-3; ÃŽÂ ²2Mrev, 5-CACACGGCAGGCATACTCATC-3; PUMA fwd PUMArev NOXAfwd NOXArev. The conditions for all QRT-PCR reactions were as follows: 3 minutes at 94 °C followed by 40 seconds at 94 °C, 40 seconds at 60 °C, and 25 seconds at 72 °C for 40 cycles. All PCR products were confirmed by the presence of a single peak upon melting curve analysis and by gel electrophoresis. No-template (water) reaction mixtures and no-RT mixtures were performed on all samples as negative controls. All experiments were performed in duplicate. Protein isolation and Western blot analysis Protein lysates from cells were extracted in ice-cold lysis buffer (0.75% NP-40, 1 mM DTT, and protease inhibitors in PBS). Total protein (25 ÃŽÂ ¼g) was subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting with the following antibodies: p73 (diluted 1:1,000, Ab-2; CalBiochem); pS6K (diluted 1:1,000; Cell Signaling Technology); S6K (diluted 1:1,000, Ab9645; Abcam); and ÃŽÂ ²-tubulin (diluted 1:2,500, D-10; Santa Cruz Biotechnology). Lentiviral production and infection The shRNA lentiviral constructs were created by transferring the U6 promoter-shRNA cassette into a lentiviral backbone, and high-titre lentiviral stocks were generated by co-transfection with packaging vectors into 293T cells as described previously [3, 4, 13]. The shRNA target sequences for TAp73 was 5-GGATTCCAGCATGGACGTCTT-3. The TAp73 targeted sequence is found within p73 exon 3. Therefore, this shRNA does not target ΆNp73 [4]. RESULTS Selective sensitivity of basal-like breast cancer toward cisplatin To gain an overview of the selectivity of chemotherapeutic agents for basal-like breast cancer cells, we compared their antiproliferative properties in a panel of basal-like and luminal-like breast cancer cell lines which has been validated previously through gene profiling [15]. All cells were treated with increasing concentrations of cisplatin, paclitaxel or doxorubicin for 72 hours and growth measured using the MTT assay. Figure 1A and B summarizes the results from these breast cancer cell lines in which basal-like breast cancer cells demonstrated selective sensitivity to cisplatin. This selectivity was absence in cells treated with paclitaxel or doxorubicin suggesting that basal-like breast cancer cells confer selective sensitivity towards cisplatin (Figure 1A, B and Supplement Table 1). Small chemical library screening identify rapamycin as synergistic agents for cisplatin Although cisplatin is currently one of the most used agents in the treatment of cancer, the use of cisplatin is hampered by its side effects, especially neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and rug resistance [16]. Hence, the present study was aimed to identify chemosensitizers that could synergize the effects of cisplatin for treatment of basal-like breast cancers. To identify small molecules that enhance sensitivity of basal-like breast cancer cells to cisplatin, a cell-based high-throughput screen was performed using MDA-MB-468 cell line and a small chemical library consisting of 160 well validated specific inhibitors. The screens were done in 96-well plates to which compounds were added at 10  µM, followed by cisplatin at 1  µM. Cell viability was measured 72 hours later by MTT assay. Each plate included controls of untreated cells, cells treated with compounds or cisplatin only, and cells treated with a combination of both agents. Combinations of the treatments that induced growth inhibition higher than those of the same doses used alone (p The molecules identified in this screen includes rapamycin, [3-(Pyridin-2-yl)-4-(4-quinonyl)]-1H-pyrazole (LY364947), 4-(3-Chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (AG1478), (E)3-[(4-Methylphenyl)sulfonyl]-2-propenenitrile (BAY11-7082), 2-(4-Morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (LY294002) and 4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole (SB203580). Structures of these compounds and their growth inhibitory effects were shown in Figure 2. The molecular target of these compounds was listed in Table 1. The 6 compounds identified are specific inhibitors of the mTOR, TGF-à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢, EGFR, NFà ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ «B PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways which have been previously reported to be upregulated specifically in basal-like breast cancers [7, 17-20]. However, when tested for synergism with cisplatin at fixed concentration ratio, only rapamycin showed synergism when combined with cisplatin in MDA-MB-468 cells using the isobologram method that simulate the median-dose combination index (CI) [14]. The mean combination index at ED50, ED75, and ED90 of rapamycin (10:1 cisplatin:rapamycin) when combined with cisplatin was 0.52 à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ± 0.06, where combination index Specific synergistic effects of rapamycin and cisplatin in basal-like breast cancer cells Next, we sought to investigate if combination of cisplatin with rapamycin exhibit specific synergism in basal-like breast cancers by comparing their effects in a panel of breast cancer cell lines. The antiproliferative effect of treatment was evaluated using MTT assays and drug interaction was assessed by the isobologram method as described in the previous section. The results demonstrated that combination of rapamysin and cisplatin exhibited selective synergistic effects only in the basal-like MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231 and HCC1937 cells, but not in the luminal-like T47D or MCF-7 cells (Figure 3A and Table 2). To ensure that the lack of synergistic effects of rapamycin and cisplatin observed in luminal-like cells is not due the general lack of sensitivity of luminal-like cells to cisplatin per se, we compared the apoptotic effects of cisplatin and rapamycin alone or in combination in MDA-MB-231 and T47D cells using an equal potent dose of cisplatin (IC50 dose). Both cell lines exhibited similar amount of apoptosis following treatment with their respective IC50 dose of cisplatin. Interestingly, when both cell lines were treated with combination of cisplatin and rapamycin, synergistic effects were evidenced only in MDA-MB-231 cells but not in T47D cells. The potentiation effects of rapamycin observed in MDA-MB-231 cells were further enhanced by sequential treatment with rapamycin for 6 hours followed by cisplatin (data not shown). These results demonstrated that rapamycin is capable of sensitizing basal-like breast cancer cells to cisplatin, suggesting that the synergistic effects of rapamyc in and cisplatin may be mediated through a common pathway. Rapamycin sensitizes basal-like cells to cisplatin through p73 up regulation Previous study has shown that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin up regulate p73 in breast cancer cells [21]. We and others have also demonstrated that p73 is overexpressed in a subset of triple-negative breast tumors and that p73 is required for cisplatin sensitivity in basal-like breast cancer cells [4]. On the basis of these findings, we ask if the synergistic effects of rapamycin and cisplatin combination could be explained by the activation of the p73 pathway. To test this notion, MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with 10  µM of cisplatin and 100 nM rapamycin alone or in combination for 48 hours. mTOR inhibition was confirmed using phospho-S6K as a marker of mTOR activity. Quantitation of the mRNA and protein expression of the TAp73 was performed using qPCR and immunoblotting, respectively. The results showed that treatment of rapamycin or cisplatin alone did not change the expression of TAp73 mRNA but induced significant up regulation of TAp73 protein expression in MDA-MB-231 cells (Figure 4A and B). Next, we evaluated the expression of the two potent pro-apoptotic BH3 only proteins, PUMA and NOXA, which has been identified as specific p73 target genes, using qPCR [22, 23]. As expected, treatment of cells with cisplatin for 48 hours induced mRNA expression of PUMA and NOXA in both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Significant induction of PUMA and NOXA were also observed in MDA-MB-231 cells but not in MDA-MB-468 cells following treatment with rapamycin alone. When cells were treated with combination of cisplatin and rapamycin, the expression of PUMA and NOXA was further enhanced, corroborated with the massive induction of apoptosis as shown in Figure 3B. Together, these results suggest that rapamycin synergize cisplatin activity in basal-like cells through induction of p73 pathway. p73 is required for the synergistic effects of rapamycin and cisplatin in basal-like breast cancer cells To further evaluate whether p73 is the effector of the synergistic effects of rapamycin and cisplatin in basal-like breast cancer cells, we generated a series of isogenic cell lines that have been depleted for TAp73 by stably expressing a shRNA species that target specifically human TAp73. Unlike MDA-MB-231 cells which express one predominant TAp73 isoform (TAp73à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢) isoform, MDA-MB-468 cells express high levels of two p73 isoforms, TAp73à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¡ and TAp73à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢ [21]. Figure 5A showed efficient knock-down of TAp73 isoforms in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. As expected, treatment of cisplatin alone induced significant amount of apoptosis in MDA-MB-468 vector control cells. This apoptotic effects were further enhanced in the presence of rapamycin, consistent with our previous observations (Figure 3B). In stark contrast, depletion of TAp73 not only reduced the amount of apoptosis following treatment of cisplatin alone but also completely abrogated the synergistic effects of rapamycin (Figure). This result is further supported by the isobologram analysis which showed a lack of synergism of rapamycin-cisplatin treatment in the TAp73 depleted cells. Together, these results suggest that TAp73 is required for the synergistic effects of rapamycin and cisplatin in basal-like breast cancers. DISCUSSION By gene profiling, breast cancers can be classified into 5 molecularly distinct subtypes: luminal A, luminal B, HER2+, basal-like and normal breast cancers. The basal-like subtype, which represents 15-20% of breast cancers, has been subjected to extensive investigation in recent years due to its association with poor patient survival [1, 2, 20, 24]. Unlike many breast cancers, patients diagnosed with basal-like breast cancers are not eligible for molecular targeted therapy that target ER (e.g. tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors) or HER2 (e.g. Herceptin) as they do not express the estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR), nor do they have amplified HER2 [1, 24]. The treatment option therefore is relied on aggressive conventional chemotherapies which have limited efficacy, many side effects and often high rate of relapse. Hence, development of an effective therapeutic strategy remains an important goal in the management of basal-like breast cancer. Several lines of evidence has suggested a link between basal-like breast cancers and BRCA1 deficiency [7, 25, 26]. In most cases, the clinical features and outcomes for women with sporadic basal-like breast cancers are broadly similar to those with BRCA1-related cancers including high tendency of developing high grade, high mitotic index tumors, shorter time of relapse, similar pattern of metastatic spread and cytogenetic changes associated with frequent loss of X-chromosome inactivation [7, 27-32]. The majority of BRCA1-associated cancers are also triple-negative (ER, PR and HER2 negative), express basal cytokeratins and other markers commonly seen in basal-like breast cancers (e.g. p53, P-cadherin and EGFR) [7]. Gene expression profiling also demonstrated that BRCA1-associated cancers segregate strongly with basal-like breast cancers [2, 29, 33, 34]. Although BRCA1 somatic gene mutations are uncommon in sporadic basal-like cancers, these tumors have been shown to have a dysfunction al BRCA1 pathway due to BRCA1 gene promoter methylation and/or BRCA1 pathway transcriptional inactivation [7, 25, 26]. The fundamental biological similarities between hereditary BRCA1-related breast cancers and basal-like cancers suggest that strategies targeting the dysfunctional BRCA1 pathway may be effective in basal-like breast cancers. There is increasing evidence that the DNA repair defects characteristic of BRCA1 related cancers, especially defective homologous recombination, confer sensitivity to certain systemic agents, such as platinum-based chemotherapy and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors [34-38]. Indeed, recent clinical studies revealed that sporadic basal-like cancers responded to platinum-based chemotherapy and were associated with a high rate of complete pathologic response [9, 11, 38]. Consistent with the clinical data, our in vitro study also reveals that basal-like breast cancer cells confer specific sensitivity to cisplatin as compared to other chemotherapeutic agents (e.g. doxorubicin or paclitaxel) (Figure 1), further support research into the utility of platinum-ba sed agents in basal-like breast cancers. Given the high specificity and response rate of basal-like breast cancers toward platinum-based therapy, our focus is to maximize the benefits associated with this therapy through drug combination strategies. Using a small chemical library consisted of 160 well-validated and specific inhibitors that target the human kinome, we have identified 6 compounds that significantly potentiate the antiproliferative effects of cisplatin in basal-like breast cancer cells. These compounds include rapamycin, LY364947, AG1478, BAY11-7082, LY294002 and SB203580 which targets the mTOR, TGFà ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢RI, NFà ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ «B, PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathway respectively. Of note, these pathways have been reported previously to be over activated in basal-like breast cancers [7, 17, 18, 20]. To further investigate the mode of interaction between these compounds and cisplatin, we performed a drug combination study using the isobologram approach as described previously (Ref). Out of the 6 compounds identified, rapamycin showed the strongest synergistic effects with cisplatin while others (LY364947, AG 1478, BAY11-7082, LY294002 and SB203580) showed mainly additive effects. This result is consistent with other studies which show that inhibition of mTOR by RNAi or small molecules (e.g. rapamycin, CCI-779, RAD001) enhances cisplatin chemosensitivity in ovarian [39-41], endometrial [42], head and neck [43, 44], lung [45], skin [46, 47] and liver [48] cancers. We next compared the synergistic effects of rapamycin in combination with cisplatin in a panel of luminal-like and basal-like breast cancer cell lines that has been previously validated by gene profiling [15]. Intriguingly, the synergistic effects were observed only in MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231 and HCC1937 basal-like cells, but not in MCF-7 or T47D luminal-like cells. Several models have been proposed to explain the synergistic effects of rapamycin and cisplatin in cancer cells. Beuvnk et al., 2005 showed that RAD001 (Everolimus), a rapamycin derivative, dramatically enhances cisplatin-induced apoptosis in wild-type p53 but not mutant p53 tumor cells by inhibiting p53-induced p21 expression [49]. Wangpaichitr et al., 2008 demonstrated that inhibition of mTOR by CCI-779 decreased levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins, BCL2/BCLxL, and increasing apoptosis in lung cancer cells that is resistance to cisplatin [50]. Although these models provide important evidence for mTOR inhibition and cisplatin synergism in cancer cells, it fails to explain the specific synergism we observed in basal-like breast cancer cells, as the basal-like cells that we tested are p53 mutated and do not express high level of BCL2/BCLxL (data not shown). This led us to postulate that a common signal transduction pathway inhibited by rapamycin may be an important component that sy nergizes cisplatin sensitivity in basal-like cells. Since p73 has been reported to mediate cisplatin sensitivity in a subset of triple-negative breast cancer cells [4] and that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin or RNAi lead to upregulation of p73 [21], we postulated that activation of the p73 pathways might be important for the synergistic effects of rapamycin. To test the role of p73 in rapamycin and cisplatin synergism, we first evaluated the expression of p73 mRNA and protein levels following treatment with cisplatin or rapamycin alone or in combination in MDA-MB-231 cells. Consistent with previous studies, treatment of cells with cisplatin or rapamycin alone induces p73 protein expression followed by transcriptional activation of the 2 potent pro-apoptotic p73 target genes, PUMA and NOXA. When MDA-MB-231 cells were co-treated with rapamycin and cisplatin, the elevation of p73 and its pro-apoptotic target genes were synergistically enhanced. The observed changes in p73 protein in MDA-MB-231 cells, however, were not due to parallel changes in p73 RNA levels, suggesting that inhibition of mTOR might lead to inactivation of a yet unknown p73 specific protein degradation pathway. To validate that the rapamycin and cisplatin synergism is mediated by p73, we generated isogenic MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells that were depleted for p73 using a lentiviral-shRNA that target specifically the transactivating isoform of p73 (TAp73). Indeed, depletion of TAp73 in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells completely abrogated the synergistic effects of rapamycin suggesting that the synergism between rapamycin and cisplatin required p73 function. Although the combination of cisplatin and rapamycin has not been previously investigated in clinical study, it is worth noting that a phase II neo-adjuvant clinical trial of cisplatin and RAD001 (Everolimus), in patients with triple-negative breast cancers has recently open for recruitment (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00930930), and will be able to address the potential of cisplatin and mTOR inhibitors combination therapy directly. It would be equally intriguing to determine the role of p73 related pathway as potential biomarkers that might predict response to treatment given the pivotal role of p73 in the synergistic effects of mTOR inhibition and cisplatin sensitivity. In conclusion, combination of mTOR inhibitors and cisplatin may be a useful therapeutic strategy in basal-like breast cancers.

Digital Technology And Manipulation Media Essay

Digital Technology And Manipulation Media Essay The first device invented that could digitise or make analog photographs available in a digital format was a scanner made by Russell Kirsh in 1957 (Terras, 2008). The scanner functioned by looking at the variations in tone within photographs and assigning a digital value to represent a tone band. Instead of creating a new photograph this scanner copied an existing photograph and recorded it digitally. Because photographs can be scanned to a digital format, the initial analog negative can now be manipulated digitally and the truth value held by analog photographs can now be challenged. During the 1960s digital imaging technologies was still only used by large institutions such as NASA and the American government. It was not until the 1980s that the media began to use digital imaging technologies. Digital technology could be employed to enhance the clearness of television broadcasts and speed up the time in which photojournalists were able to send pictures to the media. In 1982, National Geographic published a photograph of the pyramids at Giza on the front cover of the magazine, see Figure 6. The photograph has been manipulated to fit a horizontal photograph of the pyramids onto the portrait cover of the magazine to make the front cover more captivating (Terras, 2008). It is important to note that this instance of manipulation was one of the first by a recognised organisation. National Geographics editor, Fred Ritchen who decided to compress the pyramids felt he had achieved a new point of view by the retroactive repositioning of the photographer a few feet to one side (White, 1999). Ritchens defence to accusations of manipulating the photograph was that if the photographer had moved and taken the photograph at a different time of the day then the photograph would be the same. However the fact remains that this photograph was not the one that was made. The fact that the photograph was manipulated was not broadcast. It was admitted to have been mani pulated when other journalists questioned the photograph. Howard Chapnick (1982) argued that the words Credibility and Responsibility allow photographers to call photography a profession due to ethical considerations rather than a business (p.40). Chapnick goes on to argue that not maintaining these ethics will damage journalistic impact and photography as a language. Lastly, he maintains the threat to credibility is permanent if people begin to disbelieve the news photograph (p.41). In 1985 digital cameras became widely used by professional photographers. Companies also marketed digital imaging camera to the public for domestic use. During this time the processing capabilities of computers was also advancing and provided a way for individuals to load image manipulation software and manipulate photographs. In 1991 the American government and the media used digital photography as a technology for the first time in a war environment. Not only was digital photography used to photograph the war but was used in weapon systems by America (Floridi, 1999). A much more recent current use of digital imaging technology is live electronic manipulation. Manipulating a live feed allows the editing of satellite image feeds. On the fly image editing may be used in sports programming to show lines on pitches or by governments to hide classified buildings from satellite imagery that is available to the public such as Google Maps. News television channels and can also employ technology to sow text feeds beneath news anchors. Delta Tre supply FIFA with sports data services and on screen graphics (Bevir, 2012). In 2012, the union of European Football Associations placed recorded footage of a fan crying at the opening of the game and played it after one of the teams had won the game to make for more compelling television. Amato (2000) argues that as this technology becomes more widespread and available the credibility of video media will be damaged permanently. In some ways this is similar to National Geographics manipulated Pyramid in that both rep resentations existed but were manipulated to give heightened sensation. The abilities that digital imaging technology have provided have been used by Walt Disney Imagineering Studio to take existing photographs and film of aged or dead celebrities made in the past to be used in new programmes or films (Amato, 2000). This use of technology to manipulate media evidences how analog photographs and films are susceptible to these processes and also asks the question of what is the final product? Is it simply a manipulated piece of video footage or a new creation entirely? Mitchell (1992 p.192) argues that it is a new creation entirely. Mitchell (1992 p.192) also argues that photography in recent times has entered a phase which he terms pseudophotography meaning that digital photography is not photography. Though the two methods are comparable, they possess different manipulation potentials which are examined in the next section. Manipulation Since Digital photography Savedoff (1997, p.19) argues that technologies alter rather than simply add to the resources of art. This means that photography as an art form has been altered by added manipulation potential. This new digital imaging practice should possess ethical consideration for the manipulation of photographs. However, this has not happened due to the inability to differentiate between the digital or analog photograph when printed creating difficulty for imposing a different standard for each method. Photographys relationship with reality as previously outlined is apparent in a digital photograph that has been printed, however the relationship created by the light reaction will not be present in a digital photograph. In an analog photograph created through a chemical process there is room for argument that the relationship with light remains intact. Although this trace looks to be evident in a photograph created by digital means, the trace is not a chemical reaction but a digital representatio n of reality. Additionally, digital photography is limitless in the number of alterations or manipulations that can be applied. These manipulations leave little or no evidence of themselves. Modern digital camera allow the photographer to review the image made and thus allows them such benefits of changing the composition until they are satisfied with the result. Images are manipulated by using computers and image editing software such as Adobe Photoshop, along with scanners to digitise analog images. Therefore, photographs made before digital photography are vulnerable to manipulation just like the aforementioned case of Disney outlined earlier (Bouse, 2002). The presence of digital imaging technology has changed photography and its relationship with veracity permanently. This lends evidence to Bouses argument that old photographs may be more widely trusted and that digital photography makes readers of images aware not only of current manipulations but of those in the past also. The reader of a photograph, although aware that the photograph was made before the invention of digital technologies is aware that the photograph might have been manipulated and nonetheless chan ges the way the reader interprets all photographs, manipulated or not (Savedoff, 1997). This means that digital technology has decreased the veracity of photography due to readers now questions all photographs. Lastly, it is very difficult for the average reader to distinguish between manipulated and non-manipulated photographs. Michelle Henning (2007) argues that digital imaging technologies have enabled limited new ways of manipulating a photograph. Henning continues that digital technologies have only made the manipulation of photographs more available. Henning also argues that the public was previously unaware of image manipulation techniques before the invention of digital imaging technology. Digital manipulation has made the public more aware of photo manipulation and maybe even increased how often images are manipulated. Digital vs Analog Photography has been changing since its birth in the 1800s and many of the changes have been driven by technology but were always based on chemical reactions to light. In the 1820s Joseph Niepce found a method to permanently fix a photograph using lavender oil and bitumen. Niepce swiftly developed this method further into heliographs made by using silver nitrate. Eduard Daguerre was also looking for a way to photographically record subjects and contacted Niepce to work with each other. After Niepce died, Daguerre found that mercury could fix images much more permanently and created the Daguerreotype which Daguerre believed at the time serves to draw nature and gives nature the power to reproduce herself (Hirsh 2000). Since photographys invention the idea of a device that could create unmediated representations of reality was widely believed yet now we begin to see photography may not deserve the verisimilitude it has been ascribed. At the same time Henry Fox Talbot worked on a photog raphic method using paper print. Like the creation of photography and the creation of digital photography these changes and advances were driven simultaneously by several individuals at once. The daguerreotype became the most popular and was widely used to make very simple portraits. Later though, interest was given to the Calotype created by Talbot. The Calotype was less reliable but allowed for prints to be reproduced much more easily and allowed greater detail with the print at least initially. During the mid-1800s negatives were made from glass and coated with albumen paper. These proved much more reproducible and gave more detailed and sharper results than earlier methods. With regard to digital methods, has digital photography made reproducing images easier due to the fact that digital images when stored on a computer can be duplicated instantly and without cost? Being able to reproduce a photograph has always been desirable and this is shown by the demand for the Calotype. Be aring in mind that digital imaging technology has helped progress the abilities of cameras, it has done this in a way that has divided the two types of photography causing great debates among them. Mark Amerika, digital artist and writer, in an interview talks about the differences between digital and analog photography. Amerika claims that images and how they are read is influenced by the way they are captured, meaning that as technology changes so does out interpretation of photographs (Jacobs 2006). Because photography is much more easily manipulated with digital photography the objectivity of the photograph is lost and it is futile to pursue objectivity (Jacobs 2006). It would seem true that manipulation is more common since the advent of digital photography, which could argue that the making of an image is only a small portion of the final product like in the aforementioned case of Rejalnder. Both Mitchell and Savedoff claim that digital photography and the manipulation of it cannot be compared to analog photography because it is a new medium (Savedoff, 1997). Both continue to argue that because with digital photographs the image is created with a digital sensor digital capture is a separate process to analog capture. Digital photographs receive their authority because they are almost identical to analog photographs and this authority is passed to the digital photograph. However, if this passing of authority is stopped, digital photography may be criticised for its lack of authority. News reporting currently accomplished by digital photography may no longer be an acceptable medium for those purposes. Oddly, as already outlined, if digital photographs obtains its authority from its similarity to analog photographs, analog photographs may lose its authority because of this relationship. It is important to note that photo manipulation was possible before digital technologies; it took place much less and needed much more time, effort and dexterity (Savedoff, 1997). Savedoff and Mitchell contend that the increase in frequency of digital manipulations is enough to show the conceptualisation of digital photography as a new medium. When an analog photograph was manipulated evidence of this procedure could be found on the negative and would more than likely mean the negative would be permanently modified. Yet with digital photography this does not apply (Savedoff, 1997). The digital file makes it very difficult to ascertain whether the file has been manipulated and also difficult to determine which file is the original, if one exists. Because analog manipulations needed expertise and dexterity it means that they were the exception to the norm as they were costly to accomplish. The refined abilities of digital technology that allow image manipulation to be completed with ease have made manipulated photographs become the ordinary. Savedoff (1997) claims that the power of the reportage photograph has lessened. Savedoff (1997) also contends that before digital photography there were well known standards regarding what was and what was not acceptable manipulation of an image. However, with digital technologies these standards have become irrelevant. This new trend of manipulation gives much less regard to what it means to manipulate an image. Amerika (XXX) furthers Savedoffs claims and he believes that instead of digital photography being a new entity it simply does not exist (Jacobs). Amerika argues that digital photography is just the processing of information and to print a digital image is no different to printing a text document from a computer. Amerika believes digital photography is not about photography but about binary code or manipulation ones and zeroes (Jacobs). However, if this school of thought is accepted then surely analog photographs are about chemistry and the reaction of light to a light sensitive medium. A third argument exists which opposes both Amerika and Savedoff. Michelle Henning (2007) makes the case that digital photography has changed or remediated the landscape of photography. Keeping in mind that digital photography is used somewhat differently to analog photography, but to greater extent is experienced and interpreted in similar ways. The design of digital cameras imitate analog cameras and feature the same vocabulary such as ASA/ISO standards which relate to film speed and are not necessary for digital cameras (Amerika/Jacobs). Maybe these imitations create a bridge between the two technologies that allows the inherent veracity of analog photography to be inherited by digital cameras (Henning, 2007). Henning (2007) asks why digital cameras try to imitate analog cameras when the potential of digital imaging is greater than analog capabilities. It is important to state that although many companies manufacture cameras it is the larger companies such as Canon and Nikon and So ny that market digital cameras aggressively. Hennings idea that digital photography has remediated analog forms of photo making is not because of the abilities afforded by digital photography but because of the way it has been aggressively marketed by the companies that manufacture them (2007). Henning (2007, p.59) summarises in saying that digital imaging is not less photographic than chemical analog is and that it is a different process but ends up as the same result. The final analysis of the differences between digital photography and analog photography outlined by Mitchell (1992) is to see digital and analog photography as similar to painting. Rather than painting no longer being used as many feared it would with the birth of photography, its purpose simply changed. A change similar to this may also be experienced by analog photography, finding its niche somewhere between analog photography and painting. Digital photography however possesses the realism of analog photography but is more easily manipulated, putting it next to the two art forms (Mitchell, 1992).

Saturday, July 20, 2019

adoption process Essay -- essays research papers

Adoption: The Process   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Adoption is metamorphosing into a radical new process that is both sweeping the nation and changing it. But this process is not an easy one, there are many steps to go through. Through research it is made a lot easier. Adoption is a also a highly visible example of a social institution that has benefits from and been reshaped by both the Internet and the exponential growth of alternative lifestyles, from single to transracial to gay. It is accelerating our transformation into a more multicultural society; even as it helps redefine out understanding of â€Å"family.† The process includes three main steps including a type of adoption, the techniques for location a baby for adoption, arranging a successful adoption, the steps at the hospital, and lastly the legal issues in adoption.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There are many types of adoption in California, more then any other in the country. The reasonable amount of time it takes to adopt a child is about a year. â€Å"Independent adoption is an alternative to agency adoption and is the means by approximately 85 percent of all newborns are adopted in California. Since that is the most popular that is the type that I am going to concentrate. The reason that it is the most popular is because of four factors. The first is because the independent agency is flexible, secondly it allows the birth mother to personally meet and select adoptive parents, thirdly it allows the adoptive parents to quickly locate the birth mother rather Smith 2 then waiting several years for the agency to do it for them, and lastly the child can be placed in the home of the adoptive parents immediately after birth instead of waiting in a foster home. By law the birth mother must personally place the child with the adoptive parents. That does not mean she has to do it physically it just means she must personally select them. The birth mother is permitted to release her child into the adoptive parents custody as soon as the hospital discharges the baby, usually 2-3 days old. Generally when the child is six-eight months old the adoptive parents can go to court to permanently finalize the process. A new birth certificate is prepared after the adoption is granted by the court. Independent adoption fees and costs can vary dramatically. Most adoption attorneys charge between 3,000 to 4,000. The adop... ...Release is a form that needs to be filled out by the birth mother to release the child directly to the birth parents. The birth mother can also chose to chose a room on or off the maternity ward. The reason that one chooses off the maternity ward is because it is away from the parents who are bringing their baby home. When the baby is born the hospital usually lets the adoptive parents see the baby, visiting hours usually don’t apply. The birth mother is still the legal parent and so only she can authorize any medical procedures regarding the child during the hospitalization. Before the baby is discharged the hospital will examine the baby and authorize the child’s release. Do not worry if the mother has chosen a name for the child different from the one you have chosen. Your Petition for Adoption will state how you wish to change the child’s name, and a new birth certificate will be made by the court. Smith 5 Work Cited Hicks, Randall. Nuenez, Linda. Adopting in California, How to find a Child. WordSlinger Press. 1992. Melina, Lois Ruskai. Roszia, Sharon Kaplan. The Open Adoption Experience. HarperPerennial. 1993. Pertman, Adam. Adoption Nation. Basic Books. 2000.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Essay --

Euthanasia is a well- discussed topic that includes multiple perspectives on the ethics of it. This is an important issue for any society to reconcile because it is a life and death issue. Euthanasia is a highly personal decision that can be made for many reasons. The moral and ethical concerns over euthanasia don't take into account the dignity of the one dying. Who decides the quality of a human's life? We did not have the chance to choose if we wanted to come here, so should we be entitled to the honor of choosing to leave? Over the years, the laws and ethical concerns regarding the controversial topic of euthanasia have been questioned repeatedly by society. Many have found it difficult to see their way through the many existing resources without feeling some hopelessness that the conflicting ideas on mercy-killing might one day be resolved. Euthanasia is defined as the painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in an irreversible coma. It is also called â€Å"Physician- Assisted Suicide† or, â€Å"PAS† for short. The term comes from the Greek expression for "good death." Now, this short definition is a cause of debates all over the world. Doctors, politicians, religious leaders, lawyers, and general public argue over the law that would allow or forbid euthanasia. There are only two countries, which allow Physician Assisted Suicide; these are Netherlands and Belgium, and the state of Oregon in the United States. The issue of euthanasia has been an important turn in history for its differing points of view on the ethics. The first usage of the term "euthanasia" was from the historian Suetonius who described how the Emperor Augustus was, "dying quickly and without suffering in the arms of his wife, L... ...eligion does not think that a human being has a right to decide whether to die or not. As previously stated, as it was already mentioned is too subjective, and in general cannot be compared with the human’s sufferings, human’s unbearable pain and freedom to choose whether to continue living or not, and euthanasia should be better legalized in order to gain control over that process. I therefore conclude that no one can claim to truly know whether, or in what circumstances, euthanasia is moral or not. With the differing perspectives and opinions about Physician Assisted Suicide it is possible to try to answer this question by discussing the moral issues, but also it is not easy to say whether euthanasia is ever morally supportable. Of course, euthanasia should be differentiated from simple removal of life support from a patient who has already effectively succumbed.

Martin Luther King and Love :: essays research papers

It is rather difficult to speak of love in an original sense today. If someone were to ask an individual to define love, a common response would be, â€Å"love cannot be explained, it cannot be defined†. This answer would be acceptable if love was equally felt for and between all people. But anyone would have to agree to the fact that there are different degrees and levels of love. Someone would not love his or her family members the same way they would his or her spouse. Love varies between different levels of action and feeling, and a definition of each level must be discovered in order to understand its varying power. Martin Luther King Jr. felt the need to address this particular issue when discussing the principles behind the non-violent student movement for civil rights. King felt that a working idea of love was the keystone to the philosophy of a non-violent protest. Turning to the Greek language and idea of love, King was able to define three particular levels, eros, philia, and agape. His goal was to take one of these three levels and use it as the definitive quality of the non-violent movement.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The non-violent philosophy was not a movement of pacifism to Martin Luther King, it was one of action. Absolute strength was apparent in its practice, but how? The student movement caused many of its’ participants to be severely beaten, chastised, and arrested, only to continue while never fighting back. Why were they doing this? King felt the answer was that through their actions they would awaken not only the majority, but more importantly the minority to the need for equal rights. Apathy had set in among both groups causing them to accept the current state of affairs, and like the great â€Å"gadfly† Socrates, King and the students were forcing both groups to wake up and open their eyes.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  First, to get back on track, it is important to look at the three separate levels of love, and it would make sense to first look at eros. Eros is a romantic love, the kind of love one would have towards a beautiful object, or person. It is that sexual drive that is most apparent at the early stages of a relationship. This could be considered to be the first definition people would think of when questioned about the meaning of love. In fact in a more layman attempt at understanding eros one can think of the feeling one has during a crush, where a person’s affections are aimed at a single individual. Martin Luther King and Love :: essays research papers It is rather difficult to speak of love in an original sense today. If someone were to ask an individual to define love, a common response would be, â€Å"love cannot be explained, it cannot be defined†. This answer would be acceptable if love was equally felt for and between all people. But anyone would have to agree to the fact that there are different degrees and levels of love. Someone would not love his or her family members the same way they would his or her spouse. Love varies between different levels of action and feeling, and a definition of each level must be discovered in order to understand its varying power. Martin Luther King Jr. felt the need to address this particular issue when discussing the principles behind the non-violent student movement for civil rights. King felt that a working idea of love was the keystone to the philosophy of a non-violent protest. Turning to the Greek language and idea of love, King was able to define three particular levels, eros, philia, and agape. His goal was to take one of these three levels and use it as the definitive quality of the non-violent movement.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The non-violent philosophy was not a movement of pacifism to Martin Luther King, it was one of action. Absolute strength was apparent in its practice, but how? The student movement caused many of its’ participants to be severely beaten, chastised, and arrested, only to continue while never fighting back. Why were they doing this? King felt the answer was that through their actions they would awaken not only the majority, but more importantly the minority to the need for equal rights. Apathy had set in among both groups causing them to accept the current state of affairs, and like the great â€Å"gadfly† Socrates, King and the students were forcing both groups to wake up and open their eyes.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  First, to get back on track, it is important to look at the three separate levels of love, and it would make sense to first look at eros. Eros is a romantic love, the kind of love one would have towards a beautiful object, or person. It is that sexual drive that is most apparent at the early stages of a relationship. This could be considered to be the first definition people would think of when questioned about the meaning of love. In fact in a more layman attempt at understanding eros one can think of the feeling one has during a crush, where a person’s affections are aimed at a single individual.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Dramatic Irony Essay

‘The Bad Beginning’ is the first of thirteen books in ‘A Series of Unfortunate Events’ written by Lemony Snicket in which three Baudelaire orphans learn about their parents’ death while they were enjoying on a beach. These children have to live with a distant relative, Count Olaf who is only interested in the fortune that Mr. And Mrs. Baudelaire had left behind. Count Olaf is a very filthy man, lives in a dirty house and makes them do chores and tasks and also calls them orphans rather than children. Olaf nce tell the children that they will participate in his next play, ‘The Marvelous Marriage’ in which Olaf plans to marry Violet. Here is the place where the dramatic irony in the novel is noticeable. It seems that Klaus has some doubt over the whole issue and reads a book of law, which states that two people can get married in front of a legal judge by signing a document and stating their wedding vows. During the play Violet signs the document with her left hand. And immediately after the marriage Olaf stops the play and declares that Violet is his wife now. Olaf had also taken captive of Sunny and as soon as Sunny is back with Violet she announces that she is a right-handed and that makes the judge declare that the marriage is invalid. After this Olaf runs away but also whispers that he would kill these children as soon as he gets hold of the fortune. The novel ends with children going along with Mr. Paul and the audience remains ‘The Bad Beginning’ is the first of thirteen books in ‘A Series of Unfortunate Events’ written by Lemony Snicket in which three Baudelaire orphans learn about their parents’ death while they were enjoying on a beach. These children have to live with a distant relative, Count Olaf who is only interested in the fortune that Mr. And Mrs. Baudelaire had left behind. Count Olaf is a very filthy man, lives in a dirty house and makes them do chores and tasks and also calls them orphans rather than children. Olaf nce tell the children that they will participate in his next play, ‘The Marvelous Marriage’ in which Olaf plans to marry Violet. Here is the place where the dramatic irony in the novel is noticeable. It seems that Klaus has some doubt over the whole issue and reads a book of law, which states that two people can get married in front of a legal judge by signing a document and stating their wedding vows. During the play Violet signs the document with her left hand. And immediately after the marriage Olaf stops the play and declares that Violet is his wife now. Olaf had also taken captive of Sunny and as soon as Sunny is back with Violet she announces that she is a right-handed and that makes the judge declare that the marriage is invalid. After this Olaf runs away but also whispers that he would kill these children as soon as he gets hold of the fortune. The novel ends with children going along with Mr. Paul and the audience remains anxious about the children and their future. Here again Lemony Snicket is able to create dramatic irony and keep the audience glued to the story that is going to turn up in the next books of the series. Mishra 2 anxious about the children and their future. Here again Lemony Snicket is able to create dramatic irony and keep the audience glued to the story that is going to turn up in the next books of the series.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Karma Upon Death by Scrabble Essay

Karma. What is karma? Is it a eccentric of brio? Is it what helps us make decisions? Or is it the equalizer of life and all(prenominal)one living in it? In Charlie Fishs narration expiry By grope for karma is the main approximation. This put on tale is about a preserve and his married woman pushovering Scrabble, a blue in which piddleers earn points for the haggling make by them with avail able-bodied letters. The business relationship narrates how the spoken communication in the game reflect the practicable life of the fakers. In every narration there ar literary devices employ to help develop the theme of the account.In this history the terms proposery, the use of foreshadowing, and in the main chaff. By the decision of this essay readers leave behind elucidate how all the use of these literary terms helped develop the theme of karma in Charlie Fishs Death By Scrabble. Imagery in Death By Scrabble I shown a kitty and helps conquer the theme behind th e story, karma. Im 42 years old, its a blistering hot sunshine afternoon and all I female genitals think of to do with my wife is play Scrabble (page 1)this is giving the readers an vision upon the of the compass in which the economise and wife atomic number 18 upon.While starting theres the manifest feel and whim of the image of the married couple sitting and compete the game at a term of heat and anguish. Playing the game, the couple begins to play in a way over against to each one other with intention to win, the imagery is seen upon when his wives content expression as she rearranges her letters. Clack, clack clack. (page1) The economize is as well in a race to win the game, as seen by him hoping she has lousy letters and even decision it remarkably Tilo 2 satisfying when his wife gets a static shock move out the air condition unit. Each player is against the other while cosmos able to outstandingly give immense imagery to the readers even the inner feelings such as the preserve feeling a wicked rage build up wrong some inner poison late spreading.. and when it gets to my fingertips I am going to overfly out of my chair and start smasher her again and again and again. Its obvious that hes feeling savage and wants to win noxiously to annoy her or maybe to get a smashing feeling out of it. Imagery makes the story fulfill with life and integrity into being relyd and seen in the readers imagination and perspective.Another literary is deviced used in this story is foreshadowing. In the story we realise right away that the husband abominate towards his wife, and wants to get rid of her as in short as possible. This foreshadows that there is a mishap of death in the story. As the story goes on the husband realizes all of the terms he puts beat on the scrawl board ar coming true. snip lag to fly. Stupid. I opened my eyes, and theres a fly. An insect, go around above the scrabble board, surfboarding the thermals from the tepid cu p of tea. That proves nothing. (page 4)This is another manikin of foreshadowing because theauthor hints to the reader that the Scrabble Board is jinxed, and that the next words that the husband and wife put down on the board will become reality. in the end another Foreshadowing moment happens when she plays the word carefulness. This foreshadows a warning of something bad to come. We now see how foreshadowing plays a huge role connecting to the theme of the story. Oh the derision The last literary term irony is used from top to bottom in this story.This quote is when the narrator/main mention starts realize that everything being put down on the Scrabble Board is casualty in real life. She plays sweatier im getting sweatier This is when the reader may observe the overall irony in the story when the words come to life and are completed. I dont believe it- it cant be Tilo 3 a coincidence. The letters made it happen.I played the word explodes and the air conditioning unit explode d (page 3) with this mindset of the husband he reveals the irony and the reality in the story for the reader. A big dampen of irony in the story is how his full cousin-german-german Harold swallowed a bee when he was nine, his throat bragging(a) up and he died.Then towards the end of the story he chokes on a b just like his cousin and dies. The greatest irony in the story is the fact that throughout the whole time the husband is playing scrabble try to figure out which words he can spell out to fling off his wife, but what he doesnt sock is that his wife is playing the same game. And ironically she ends up winning. Irony in this story best illustrates Karma. Finally the use of these literary terms helped lay down the theme of this story. The irresolution kept the reader wanting to turn in what will happen to the wife.will he kill her?Foreshadowing in this story is also another huge part in showing karma, when he realizes every word he puts down becomes a reality, and his wi fe playing and plays the word caution to warn him. Lastly the greatest literary device used to help create the theme of karma is irony. It is very ironic how the husbands cousin dies from choking on a bee and he ends up choking on a B, also the fact that the husband is seek to kill his wife, but once again ironically she ends up killing him. These are the ingredients in this story that helped develop the theme of karma.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

The People

The People

Angela Franklin Professor Ginfrida ENC1101 22 April 2013 Neat Vs. Sloppy In Suzanne Britts â€Å"Neat People Vs. Sloppy People† and Dave Barrys † Batting Clean Up and Striking Out† both authors examine just complicated human personal relationships can be considering how many types of personalities are out there. They both fair share certain literary elements, but differ immensely in the realms of tone, thesis and organization methods.Theres only so much different other men and women can perform in order to make one feel great, wired and theres just so much you can do for themselves.They both use these literary elements to create humor in their essays. Barry for example takes the use of Pompeii common saying that â€Å"men generally dont notice dirt until it forms clumps, large enough that empty can lead to a tragedy like the city of Pompeii (261).Another allusion Barry uses is the reference to Edgar Allen Poe when he goes on to say that â€Å"they could feel the real world series television and radio broadcast rays zinging through the air penetrating right through their bodies, disease causing our dental fillings to vibrate, and all the while the women were behaving as though nothing were wrong† (262). how This enhances his story with suspense.Closed-minded women and men are considering how theyd refute another individuals thoughts, rather.

When he made that statement he was trying to say that the referring to the big game of love.In the same manner Britt went on to say that â€Å"sloppy people live in what some may call â€Å"Never Never Land† (255). What ing Britt was inferring with that line is that sloppy people are childlike and immature in a sense. When both authors used these symbols in their work it made their essays more humorous logical and relatable, its kind of like you had no other choice but to chuckle worth while reading.Have the person that youre training repeat back what youve clarified.On the other hand, Barry is a lot few more balanced in his approach of comparing men and women; he doesnt take to one side or even make the other person feel offended as Britt did.He just states the different different priorities of men and women, Barry went on to say that â€Å"the opposite side of the dirt coin, of course is sports† (262). Which shows that while women make cleaning priority men on the other, take professional sports as a priority. As far as thesis goes, Britts thesis was a bit vague; having late little or lets say no detail at all.We The People Hemp is simple to purchase.

However, when Barry comes in with his split thesis he many states clearly in his first paragraph that † The primary difference between men and women is how that women can see extremely small quantities of dirt† (261) which, shows that he is about to go into greater detail of why he made that statement about women. Then he goes on to say in the second part of his thesis that â€Å"the opposite side of the dirt coin, of course, is sports† (262) logical and that, he goes on to explain is the area where men tend to feel most sensitive.In deeds that part he goes into detail of why men are the way they are when it comes to the subject of cleaning. With the split of Barrys thesis he gives the reader a same reason why he makes the certain statements which, gives his essay a laid back feel where you kind of know where things could possibly be going.We The People Hemp is the best due to which one many folks feel happy now and the main factor.Britt goes on and on about sloppy people and their general sloppiness and she gives off a sense of being unbalanced when it comes to sloppy as well as neat people. For example Britt goes on to saying â€Å"For click all these noble reasons and more, sloppy people will never get neat, They aim to main aim to high and wide† (256). Leaving it at that only to go into more male bashing of sloppy people. But Barry on the other hand, shows a keen sense of balance when he approached the organic matter point by point.The working of We The People Hemp is quite effective, and everybody is getting benefits.

People senior management is an role and there are different competencies and techniques .There are an assortment of hot food items you can buy.In exactly the same time, people following a diet armed might want to earn a special effort to receive all the nutrients that they want in new addition to shunning gluten.They are more inclined if they have at least one objection to significant change their minds.

Defence mechanisms will be subsequently utilized by the brain .Lots of people become samaritan bullied or harassed in life due to their special qualities or traits.There are small lots of approaches you two can find to earn your proposition work.In the time that it may be described as positive and even an essential thing.