Saturday, March 30, 2019
Syntactic Errors in Writing
Syntactic misplays in WritingIntroductionWhen the British colonised the then Malaya, slope was utilise in the colonial administration. side of meat was the national voice communication in Malaya and it was utilise as medium of instruction in side of meat inculcates. When Malaya gained independence in 1957, the role of position as the official langu sequence dropped and Bahasa Melayu replaced English as the national language and medium of instruction in schools. In schools, English is considered as the plump for language. The official status of English in peninsular Malaysia ceased after 31st August 1967, in Sabah was after September 1973 and in Sarawak was after September 1985. (Asmah Haji Omar, 2003)Even though English is the imprimatur language in Malaysia and it is still delectation in well-nighly urban atomic human activity 18as, however, some(prenominal) people feel that the younger generations of Malaysians atomic number 18 not estimable in the language. on that point is a great difference in English proficiency among urban and rural school students even though they component the same syllabus. This energy be because mother natural language and Bahasa Malaysia be astray utilize in the rural community comp bed to English.Problem Statement umpteen give lessonsers and researchers gear up that many students in Malaysia guide problems in writing syntactical e veryy correct English sentence. This might be because of their expo legitimate to the language is slighter than the exposure to the national language, Bahasa Malaysia or is due to the influence of the mother saliva and Bahasa Malaysia.Saadiyah Darus and Khor (2009) investigated write English essays of Form 1 Chinese students in a school in Perak and they put in that their reduces make numerous syntactic errors in their essays. Errors on tense made up of 121 of errors and subdue verb arranging consists of 87 errors. Thus, they believed that the errors made by their subje cts atomic number 18 due to the influence of their introductory language and as well as due to confusion on the English grammar rules because some rules in English do not exist in their mother tongue or jump language.Saadiyah Darus and Kaladevi Subramaniam (2009) examined written English essays of Form 4 students in a school in Semenyih, Selangor and they found that the majority of their subjects made mistakes in crotchety/plural run followed by verb tense and others. They concluded that their subjects have problems acquiring normal grammatical rules in English.There be ii aims for this lease. The initiative objective is to identify the parking lot syntactic errors in compositions written by upper secondary- specifically Form four students. The second objective is to identify the concludes the subjects affiliated the errors.AnalysisTwenty two essays on Sports injuries and its bar were collected from 22 form four students from a secondary school in Petaling Jaya. There be 12 Malays, 3 Chinese and 7 Indian students in this class. These students are considered as of graduate(prenominal) or high intermediate proficiency. The students are all males and they are from the first class of the after part form and they all came from national type school that uses Bahasa Malaysia as the briny(prenominal) medium of instruction. The essays were then marked and analysed for the viridity errors the subjects committed.Type of ErrorsNumber of individualSubject Verb Agreement14Tenses13Auxiliary10 eccentric/Plurals10Preposition8 circumvent 1 Type of ErrorsError flush FormHere some general rules for injury barion.Here are some general rules for injury prevention.There is a lot of free reins in the world.There are a lot of free reins in the world.Rules, aside from guardianship the games fair, is excessively to help make the sports safer for everyone.Rules, aside from keeping the games fair, are also to help make the sports safer for everyone.These steps is important in preventing injuries.These steps are important in preventing injuries.There are a few ways to prevent this injuries.There are few ways to prevent these injuries. set back 2 Examples of errors in subject verb agreementAccording to the findings, the about park error made by the students is the subject verb agreement. Fourteen out of 22 students have problems in subject verb agreements. Most of the students do not realize when to use is/are and was/were. For example, These steps is important in preventing injuries. This student used is instead of are might be because he does not agnize the differences between is and are and when to use the appropriate verb. Students have problems in antitheticaliating the verbs because in Chinese and Mandarin, on that point is an absence of agreement between subjects and verbs in the languages and this may cause the students to commit errors on subject verb agreement. (Saadiyah Darus Khor, 2009)Maros et al (2007) examined the inte rference in breeding English among form 1 students in Malaysia and they found that most of their subject committed grammatical errors due to the interference of Bahasa Malaysia. In Bahasa Malaysia, in that respect is no such(prenominal) subject verb agreement rule that requires inflections based on the number of subjects. For example when He plays basketball is translated into Bahasa Malaysia, it volition be Dia main bola keranjang. Even though dia is a third person singular, in Bahasa Malaysia, thither is no ask to add the postfix -s after the contrive main. Hence, the subjects were distressed on when to add the suffix -s and this resulted in numerous subject verb agreement errors in their essays.Subject verb agreement errors are very gross among second language learners. Even academics make mistakes in subject verb agreement in their academic papers. Flowerdew (2001) mentioned that subject verb agreement as one of the common errors in papers submitted by non-native writers of English. (Ting, Mahanita Mahadhir Chang, 2010) Hence, it is not surprising to find that the most common error made by the students in this guinea pig is subject verb agreement.ErrorCorrect FormAccording to sports injuries statistics of 2009, the highest number of sport injuries account was soccer which is then followed by rugby and basketball.According to sports injuries statistics of 2009, the highest number of sport injuries reported was soccer which was then followed by rugby and basketball.We arse also have heavy injuries where we get knocked out like in rugby and end up in the hospital.We goat also have serious injuries where we got knocked out like in rugby and ended up in the hospital.Warm muscles are less susceptible to injuries.Warmed muscles are less susceptible to injuries.The table immortalizen the number of sport injuries in soccer is high(prenominal) than the other sports.The table shows that the number of sport injuries in soccer is higher than the other s ports.It follows by rugby that has the second highest percentage.It is followed by rugby that has the second highest percentage.Table 3 Examples of errors on tensesNext is the error on tenses, whereby 13 out of 22 students made errors on tenses. Saadiyah Darus and Khor (2009) examined the four most common errors in writings of form 1 Chinese students and they found that errors on tense are the second highest total number of errors in the study after mechanics of writing. They found that the result is not surprising because the English notion of tense is something confvictimization to second language learners. This is because, in Chinese and Bahasa Malaysia, in that location is no indication of time in their verbs as compared to English that has present, past, future and continuous tenses. Besides that, it brook also be fancied that some students are not aware of the different rules of tenses application. (Saadiyah Darus Kaladevi Subramaniam, 2009) Another reason might be because in Chinese and Bahasa Malaysia, words are added onwards the verb to show the time of the action. (Ting, Mahanita Mahadhir Chang, 2010) Hence, students have problems in constructing sentences with correct tenses.Wee (2009) found that Asian students tend to use the stem forms of the verbs in all contexts no matter of their tense. This is because Bahasa Malaysia does not have any linguistic device like verb inflections to show past time. So, the Malay students often use the stem of forms of the verbs in beau monde to simplify the target language rules and reduce their linguistic burden or learning load (Wee, 2009). Warmed muscles are less susceptible to injuries in Bahasa Malaysia would be Otot-otot yang telah panas tidak mudah mengalami kecederaan. The word telah shows the tense of the sentence in Bahasa Malaysia whereas in English, we need to add the suffix -ed to show the past tense of the sentence. Therefore, the subjects will ordinarily omit the tense because they do not kno w when to add the suffix -ed.ErrorCorrect FormWe can prevent injuries if we be in a puritanical bodily terminal figure when playing a sport.We can prevent injuries if we are in a proper physical term when playing a sport.Frequent training and instruct can install useful in a long run.Frequent training and conditioning proven to be useful in a long run.The first way to prevent sport injuries is be in proper physical condition to play a sport.The first way to prevent sport injuries is to be in proper physical condition to play a sport.The athletes should had properly train for the sport.The athletes should be trained properly for the sport.Table 4 Examples of errors on supplementResults show that many students have problems in using the appropriate auxiliary in their compositions. They often used the wrong form of modals. For example, the majority of the students wrote We can prevent injuries if we be in a proper physical condition when playing a sport instead of We can prevent injuries if we are in a proper physical condition when playing a sport. This shows that many students did not know the proper use of auxiliary verb. Ali Akbar Khansir (2008) investigated syntactic errors in English committed by Indian undergraduates and he found that errors on auxiliary were the second highest error committed by his subjects. His study revealed that there is a lack of knowledge of auxiliary verb rules among his subjects.ErrorCorrect FormFor example, in rugby we must discontinue a mouth guards to prevent our mouth or teeth from injuries.For example, in rugby we must wear a mouth guard to prevent our mouth or teeth from injuries.A sportsmen can do this by doing regular exercises, eating proper fodder and doing regular practice.A sport can do this by doing regular exercises, eating proper food and doing regular practices.These safety gear such as ball guards, helmets and etc are designed to prevent injuries.These safety gears such as ball guards, helmets and etc ar e designed to prevent injuries.There are many reason they got injured.There are many reasons they got injured.This is because most of the athlete did not warm up before playing.This is because most of the athletes did not warm up before playing.Table 5 Examples of errors on singular/pluralsTen students made errors on singular and plurals. Most of them do not know when to apply the suffix -s when it is a plural noun. This might be due to the absence of plural stigma for a noun in Bahasa Malaysia. (Saadiyah Darus Kaladevi Subramaniam, 2009) Some students might be aware of the instauration of singular and plural nouns, further probably they are confused on when they should use singular or plural nouns. For example, There are many reasons they got injured when translated into Bahasa Malaysia will be Terdapat banyak punca mereka cedera. In Bahasa Malaysia, the word banyak indicates many, so banyak punca pith many reasons. However, in English, we must apply the suffix -s to show that there are many reasons.ErrorCorrect FormDuring the year 2009, the highest number of sport injuries was soccer.In the year 2009, the highest number of sport injuries was soccer.For the conclusion, there are many ways to prevent injuries when we are playing sports.In conclusion, there are many ways to prevent injuries when we are playing sports.For example, our countrys storied national football game player, Mokhtar Dahari, retired in his football career at such a young age because of his calf injury.For example, our countrys famous national football player, Mokhtar Dahari, retired from his football career at such a young age because of his calf injury.Last but not least, avoid playing when you are in tired or in pain.Last but not least, avoid playing when you are tired or in pain.Sports can be divided to many categories such as indoor sports, outdoorsy sports and aquatic sports.Sports can be divided into many categories such as indoor sports, outdoor sports and aquatic sports.Tab le 6 Examples of errors on prepositionError on preposition is the least error made by the students. Only 8 out of 22 students made errors on preposition. Error on preposition happens might be because of the interference of students L1 and Bahasa Malaysia. This is because some of the prepositions in Mandarin and Bahasa Malaysia have correspondent meanings and functions with the prepositions in English. Hence, students might be confused on which preposition to be uses in their writing because sometimes a preposition in Bahasa Malaysia can be translated into different English prepositions. (Saadiyah Darus Khor, 2009) Ting and colleagues (2010) examined university students grammatical errors in spoken English and they found that, their subjects made the most mistakes in preposition and this indicates that the subjects are uncertain of the correct use of goods and services of the prepositions in the appropriate settings. The same problem occurs in students writings because the studen ts are uncertain of the correct usage of the prepositions.SummaryAccording to the data collected, 14 students made errors on subject verb agreement, 13 on tenses, 10 on auxiliary, 10 on singular/plural verb and 8 on prepositions. The reasons students made these errors might be due to the influence of their mother tongue or first language. Another reason might be because the subjects are confused with the rules of grammar usage.Every Form four student in the Malaysian rearing system follows the same English language syllabus provided by the Ministry of cultivation of Malaysia. The current syllabus has been used since 2003. The syllabus is divided into two sections the first is Learning Outcomes and Specifications and the second section is Language Content. Under the language content, there is a list of grammatical items that the teacher has to teach in class. They are nouns, articles, adjectives, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, connectors, sentences and punctuation. So, eve ry grammatical item is covered under the syllabus but the subjects still have problems with the grammar rules. Therefore, students should be made aware of the grammar rules and the teachers should make sure their students know how the grammar rules and apply them in their writings.There are some limitations in this study. First, the students were selected based on their proficiency and not based on ethnicity, so it is not easy to determine whether students mother tongue or first language influence the students command of English. Secondly, students compositions should be marked by to a greater extent(prenominal) than one marker so that the result will be more reliable. Thirdly, this study was conducted in an urban secondary school where English is used widely in the community. So, the result of the study does not indicate that all students in Malaysia commit the same errors and have the same reasons behind the errors. Thus, this study can be improved by taking these factors into co nsideration.ConclusionIn conclusion, by referring to previous studies and the results of the data collected, most students in Malaysia commit syntactic errors in their written compositions. Hence, teachers play an important role in education the students the correct forms of the language. They can incorporate grammar lessons into their English lessons and device interesting games and exercises to teach their students grammar. Many students and teachers acknowledge the fact that grammar lessons are boring and most teachers will try to avoid grammar lessons because the students are not interested in learning them. However, if teachers are able to device interesting lesson plans for their grammar lessons, students will be very interested and will participate actively in class.