Saturday, January 26, 2019
The impact of family and neighbourhood on the academic achievement among African American teenagers
1.0 IntroductionPerformance in naturalize has for many years been well-nigh attri only whened to an individuals life history chances. As the need for an individual to endure advanced level of training to be able to sustain prefatorial living be catch a necessity, the consequence of difficulty in training turn in become imperative (Leventhal &038 Brooks-Gunn, 2000). However, individuals do not attend checks in a vacuum as they come from families, localitys, and various life events that to the highest degreely impact on their execution in one way, or an other.Currently, well-nigh half of the teach going juvenilers be benighted. Over 70 part of residents in large cities in the United States are too coloured (Williams et al., 2002). Based on this statistics it is important to understand the specific aspects of schoolman increment of coloured people in the United States.According to ecological theory, the milieu has a great shape on the development of adolescents (Ste inberg, 2001 Ingoldsby &038 Shaw, 2002). As much as the adolescents make their own behavioural choices, societal structures and interpersonal relationships are viewed as imperative aspects that shape the adolescent choices (Leventhal &038 Brooks-Gunn, 2000). Adolescents growing up in the twenty-first century look beyond their parents and siblings for developmental stake. Therefore, the concept of neck of the woods comes in when analysing the development of adolescents. The neighbourhood concept in this context refers to both habitation and school neighbourhood and how it interacts with the teenager.2.0 Problem DefinitionThe liberate of educational operation gap has been documented by various studies (Gutman et al., 2002 Rankin &038 Quane, 2002). Unfortunately, most of these studies indicate that African American learners have the lowest educational standards in the United States (Moore &038 quest for?Lansdale, 2001). Empirical evidences indicate that in comparison to their whi te counterparts, the feat of African American children is below the normal standards (Leventhal &038 Brooks-Gunn, 2000). Many African American learners come from families that are not only economically unstable but also socially underserved. Several reasons have been think to the poor pedantic mathematical operation of African American teenagers which eventually results to high rates of school dropout. everyday sheers that these teenagers face include racism, privation, and violence (Brody et al., 2001). These issues affect their emotional and pedantic performance. collectable to their poverty ridden home views and surrounding, African American teenagers fail to establish a link between schoolman excellence and collapse adult life (Moore &038 Chase?Lansdale, 2001). The teenagers are also aware of the stereotypic approach colligate to their race which affects their self-concept and ultimately educational performance (Gutman et al., 2002).Consequently, it is important to establish family and neighbourhood computes and how they impact on the academic performance of African American teenagers. This stain is vital in the context that the current understanding on the issue is limited and does not consider the modern-day neighbourhood concept, where the United States has embraced blend racial neighbourhood settings in most places where African Americans reside. More so, most African Americans live in big cities, which expose them to multiracial settings that whitethorn affect academic performance of the teenagers. Specifically, it is important to analyse how parents, peers, close friends, classmates, and teachers influence the performance of the African American teenagers.3.0 interrogation Aim and ObjectivesTo fully inquiry this question issue, the following objectives go away guide this studyTo investigate the colligate between family settings and academic motion of the African American teenagers To examine how school and home neighbourhoods influences academic movement among African American adolescents To devise a way send regarding family and neighbourhood in managing the poor academic performance among African American teenagers 4.0 belles-lettres ReviewVarious factors have been coupled to poor academic performance among students. A study by Leventhal and Brooks-Gunn, (2000) determine variables within a culture, a family, and the environment to greatly influence the academic transaction of learners as compared to the type of an educational program. The roles of social and individual support in education are influential in the academic achievement outcomes. The school environment communicates to the learners on how the school perceives them (Brody et al., 2001). A school that is cognize to arouse collegiality, respect and values has students that are positively inclined to better performance (Gutman et al., 2002). African American learners record high levels of school drop-outs due(p) to the possibility that the school environment does not support their needs. Consequently, the school setting as a learners neighbourhood influences the academic achievement of the learners (Rankin &038 Quane, 2002).Studies have also suggested the existence of other various factors that influence the academic achievement of the learners other than the school curriculum (Ingoldsby &038 Shaw, 2002). It is essential to understand how these other factors affect the African American adolescent especially those that are lining academic hurdles. Peers have been identified to determine the teenagers deposition towards their learning institutions (Brody et al., 2001). The fact that African Americans generally have a problem with academic performance the role of peers may in most cases be negative as far as academic performance is concerned. For instance, studies have shown that the mere leave out of approval from peers is substantive enough to negatively influence the academic achievement of the adolescents (Wil liams et al., 2002).Further much, numerous studies identify parenting as a central player in academic performance of teenagers (Leventhal &038 Brooks-Gunn, 2000 Gutman et al., 2002). Parents that have supportive association with their teenagers tend to promote a sense of autonomy among the teenagers which allows the teenagers to not only explore their environment but also seek parental emotional support (Steinberg, 2001). Studies have also shown that the role of parent in defining the emotional and academic performance of the teenagers is greater among the minorities in the United States (Moore &038 Chase?Lansdale, 2001).Another issue that was identified in the literary productions review article as an influential factor for academic permanence among teenagers was the social support. Specifically, social support was closely linked to school retention levels for adolescents (Brody et al., 2001). Specifically four social factors are get by to influence the academic performance of A frican American teenagers, namely neighbourhood, peers, parents, and the school (Williams et al., 2002).This clearly indicates that there is a link between the research issues and the academic performance of African American teenagers. This study testament try to endure an in-depth analysis of exist information on the research issue in an attempt to establish a gap of knowledge that the study forget attempt to seek. Specifically current literature links family and neighbourhood to performance, but it does not provide the exact family and neighbourhood factors that have resulted to poor academic achievement among African American this testament be the area of come to for this study. To be able to establish a comprehensive investigation into the research issue, it will be important to provide an overview of the general research excogitate that will be adopted5.0 Research Plan 6.0 General methodological analysisTo conduct the research successfully, it is vital to develop and abi de by a working methodological analysis to ensure the outcomes are worthwhile (Creswell, 2003). This research is an analytic in nature as it will involve the analysis of the existing situation of academic performance of African American teenagers relative to their homes as well as neighbourhoods. This will ultimately allow the investigator to guide conclusions based on these analyses pertaining to how much homes and neighbourhoods influence the academic performance of teenage African Americans. The research methodology that will be utilise will blend quantitative and qualitative research methods as summarized belowLiterature ReviewThe literature review will offer an overview of the research issue at hand using entropy collected from articles, journals and books. A literature review will be important in the comprehension of the background of the topic (Creswell, 2003). It will also serve as a base in aiding the methods employed in the research. Specifically, this will involve ex amining articles, books and any other literature that has already been published on the research issueSurveysSince the research issue involves analysing the cosmos opinions, which is vast, survey is an appropriate method for collecting quantitative data (Creswell, 2003). This will be done finished creating questionnaires. The questionnaires will then be used for collecting numerical data from the participants. The questionnaire will also contain a section that will be used for the battle array of demographic data from the participants.InterviewsTo further enhance the effectiveness of the analysis, interviews of a selected few people will be conducted in devote to provide qualitative data for analysis. Interviews, contrary surveys require a lot of time but provide more in depth data founded on opinions and hence assist in uncovering specific information relevant to the research issue (Creswell, 2003). getup structured interviews will be conducted to collective subjective views of the study participants on the research issue.A combination of qualitative and quantitative data collection methods will be necessary to provide enough data ask for the analysis to ensure the study arrives at a well advised conclusion. Consequently, combining all the data uncovered through the above methods, a data analysis will follow. This will be implemented through vigilant assessment of qualitative and quantitative data in order to reach an acceptable conclusion. Specifically, the findings from the qualitative part of the study will be used to enrich the quantitative findings (Creswell, 2003)6.1 Research QuestionsThe above research methodology will be used in providing responses to the following research questionsWhat are the links between family settings and academic achievement of the African American teenagers How does school and home neighbourhoods influences academic achievement among African American adolescents What is the way forward regarding family and neighbour hood in managing the poor academic performance among African American teenagers 7.0 Research Study Stages and Time Lines ReferencesBrody, G. H., Conger, R., Gibbons, F. X., Ge, X., McBride Murry, V., Gerrard, M., &038 Simons, R. L. (2001). The influence of neighbourhood disadvantage, collective socialization, and parenting on African American childrens affiliation with deviant peers. Child development, 72(4), 1231-1246.Creswell, J. (2003). Research design Qualitative, quantitative and mixed method approaches (2nd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA sharp PublicationsGutman, L. M., Sameroff, A. J., &038 Eccles, J. S. (2002). The academic achievement of African American students during early adolescence An examination of quadruple risk, promotive, and protective factors. American journal of community psychology, 30(3), 367-399.Ingoldsby, E. M., &038 Shaw, D. S. (2002). Neighborhood contextual factors and early-starting unsociable pathways. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 5(1), 21-5 5.Leventhal, T., &038 Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The neighbourhoods they live in the effects of neighbourhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological bulletin, 126(2), 309.Moore, M. R., &038 Chase?Lansdale, P. L. (2001). cozy intercourse and pregnancy among African American girls in high?poverty neighbourhoods The role of family and perceived community environment. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63(4), 1146-1157.Rankin, B. H., &038 Quane, J. M. (2002). Social contexts and urban adolescent outcomes The interrelated effects of neighbourhoods, families, and peers on African-American youth. Social Problems, 49(1), 79-100.Steinberg, L. (2001). We know some things Parentadolescent relationships in retrospect and prospect. Journal of research on adolescence, 11(1), 1-19.Williams, T. R., Davis, L. E., Saunders, J., &038 Williams, J. H. (2002). Friends, family, and neighbourhood understanding academic outcomes of African American youth. urban Education, 37(3), 408-431.