Sunday, October 13, 2019

How employee motivation and productivity get effected by gender

How employee motivation and productivity get effected by gender My selected thesis topic basically lays emphasis on how employee motivation and productivity get effected by gender discrimination in workplace and how different variables effects under different envirnoment. Now I shall move to explaining the topic in detail. OVERVIEW: My research interest is in this field because I know the gravity of the situation and how important it is for both genders to treat each other equally. As we move towards development an integrated effort is needed and everyone has to do his/her bit. Women need to be looked upon as equals by men from the very start so that they can get good education and pursue good careers in the future. Gender discrimination is a very real and actual problem that is being faced by firms and more importantly women in our society. It is important to note that gender discrimination takes place not only at the workplace but in every walk of life for a common Pakistani woman. When being faced by pressure from all sides, it is very tough for the woman to carry out her day to day activities and work at her full Most of us wake up in the morning, go to college or our respective job and act in ways that are more or less our own. We respond to the atmosphere around and the people in it with little thought as to why what makes us do such things e.g. why we enjoy some activities more than others and why we fine some recreational activities better than others. All these actions are motivated by something. Motivation is defined as the forces either within or external to a person that arouse persistence and want towards completing a given course of action. Employee motivation affects productivity and part of a managers task is to channel motivation towards the accomplishment of organizational goals. Thus, a manager has to study that what motivates his employees and what influences their choice of action furthermore why they persist in that action over time. So the way people are treated deeply affects how they will perform at the workplace. Gender discrimination against someone will obviously affect his/her productivity; this study is intended to prove how deeply the two are connected to each other. Discrimination is treating of employees based on criteria that are not job related, these may include race, color, gender, ethnicity and religion. Organizations these days are moving towards diversity which means women and minorities will play a larger role in the workplace than in the past and it will be more important to keep them working at their optimum level if success is intended in the future. MANGERIAL CONCERNS: When someone in the workplace is judged, appraised, promoted or given a pay based on criteria which are not job related, discrimination occurs. This discrimination leads to the employee being demotivated because he/she knows that no matter what amount of work they put in, they will be reward on the basis of criteria which are not job related. My study is not entirely based on the wage differentials but also deals with motivational effects of discrimination at the workplace on the whole. The main motivating factor for employees has always been pay. There has used a huge gender gap in pay in Pakistan but has now decreased over time but still exists. This gap in motivation is mainly because of differences in characteristics of the jobs carried out, the labor market experience they bring to the job and discriminatory treatment of women by employers or co-workers (which will be my area of study). All these factors interact in many complex and different ways. Thus making it difficult to determine precisely how much of the difference can be attributed to discrimination. Women and men do differ greatly in their preference of jobs and the roles they play in families. Still, the skill set of a woman has now come much closer to a mans. As my thesis shall suggest, there is continuing discrimination against women in the labor market w hich leads to demotivation because there is loss of confidence for the worker. Confidence in self abilities and in the firm one is working for account as a great motivating factor. According to Maslows hierarchy of needs one of the pillars of motivation is to get appreciation for doing a certain task. Many women are raped, sexually harassed and given unfair treatment by the society leading to high rates of female illiteracy and prostitution. In my view, it is very important for the woman to be soundly educated because in our society the responsibility of raising children mainly lies with the mother. When the mother herself is not educated she can not possibly give her child the support and basic fundamental training needed to become a good human being. Moving to gender discrimination in the workplace regarding Pakistan, most of the women are house wives in our country and there are very few double income families. Although the gender gap in the workplace has reduced significantly over the past decade it still remains high with most of the working women mainly pursuing very low paid jobs e.g. teaching, nursing, receptionists and many of them work in houses as maids and helpers etc Term Working Definition Motivation [a] Motivation refers to the forces either within or external to a person that arouses enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action. Discrimination [b] To discriminate socially is to make a distinction between people on the basis of class or category without regard to individual merit. Gender Discrimination at the workplace [c] Promoting/Rejecting or treating one person differently to another based on a criterion which is not job related. In this case mainly gender Workforce Diversity [d] Hiring people with different human qualities who belong to various cultural or sub cultural groups. Glass Ceiling [e] Invisible barriers that separate women and minorities from top management positions. Disparate Treatment Gender Discrimination [f] This is also called direct discrimination. To put it simple, it is treating an employee a different manner because of their gender. Harassment [g] Harassment refers to a wide spectrum of offensive behavior. When the term is used in a legal sense it refers to behaviors that are found threatening or disturbing, and beyond those that are sanctioned by society. Verbal Harassment [h] Verbal harassment refers to persistent and unwanted verbal advances, typically in the workplace, where the consequences of refusing are potentially very disadvantaging to the victim. Also casually known as flirting. Sources: (Daft, Richard, (2000), Management 4th Edition, p. 526) (Stokes, DaShanne. (In Press) Legalized Segregation and the Denial of Religious Freedom) (Daft, Richard, (2000), Management 4th Edition, p. 524) (Daft, Richard, (2000), Management 4th Edition, p. 453) (Daft, Richard, (2000), Management 4th Edition, p. 462) (Taylor, Allison, (2005). Wrongful Termination) (Taylor, Allison, (2005). Wrongful Termination) (Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harassment) Study Objectives To study wage differences between men and women working on equal level in the banking sector. To conduct questionnaire surveys from employees to find out differences in treatment for males and females. Study how difficult it is for a woman to get promoted in a workplace How treatment of supervisors differs from males to females Is the working environment psychologically suitable for a woman to work in on a long-term basis. The ways harassment takes place for a women in her workplace and who is the main harasser LITREATURE REVIEW Gender discrimination and harassment are topic of immense importance as they have been under discussion for over more than a decade, many studies and researches have been conducted to investigate on the different aspects of this topic, to correlate and identify the various variables from within the studies to contribute to the society in a direct or an indirect way. All the studies point out to a healthy working environment for both Men and Women so that they are more motivated producing better results for the companies as a whole. The areas of research on this topic in the past focuses on Law, job satisfaction, employee turnover, organizational costs, social responsibility and corporate culture providing insights into many factors influenced by gender discrimination and harassment. Almost all the studies focuses on problem faced by women from within the organization and social external factors involving discrimination and effecting productivity. Relationship between the variables dr awn in the previous studies shows the direction of the research and how the factors interrelate with each other. Studies show that people have protection against this menace of discrimination and harassment but its effectiveness is always challenged and debated for over some time. Law and justice are always closely looked upon when it comes to harassment at work place. A study Gender-Based Harassment and the Hostile Work Environment (Joshua F. Thrope) tests whether non-sexually motivated gender discrimination is as serious a factor in creating a hostile working environment as sexually motivated gender discrimination. Although Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 applies to all gender-motivated discrimination, in practice many lower federal courts make a distinction between sexually motivated gender discrimination and non-sexually motivated gender discrimination (gender-based harassment) in a work environment. This study illustrates a court case of Dwyer v. Smith in which a police officer alleged that her co-workers and supervisors engaged in a pattern of abusive conduct that created a hostile working environment. (Thorpe). The failure of the plaintiff to allege a case of sexual harassment proved to be fatal to her case. Sexual harassment is only a part of gender discrimination that female employees face in a hostile work employment. Ridicule, rudeness or insults directed at working women may not be sexually motivated but may still create a hostile working environment. The failure of courts to view gender-based harassment claims as actionable has reduced the availability and deterred the effectiveness of Title VII. The study claims that in order to recognise gender-based discrimination as actionable it must be severe or pervasive or it could be misinterpreted. Impacts and consequences have been explored in many previous findings and emphasis have been given on the nature and reason of harassment, but from within harassment sexual harassment is the concept which is quite highlighted factor discussed in findings as in, Recent Thinking about Sexual Harassment: A Review Essay (Elizabeth Anderson) discusses the wrongs of sexual harassment and presents three theories that capture a different aspect of sexual harassment. Dignity theory explains the offensiveness of harassment; autonomy theory deals with the coercive nature of sexual conduct whereas equality theory highlights the group based harms of sexual harassment. This article also gives an example of airlines that expect female flight attendants tolerate customers anger, rudeness or ogling without any objection and hence, make it difficult for them to perform their jobs satisfactorily. The essay also tries to provide remedies and explains that antidiscrimination law has been quite useful in helping people understand their rights and combat sexual harassment in the workplace. Most people perceive harassment and gender discrimination as a mentally or physically induced trauma but very few people measure it on the basis of the high costs involved by this practice of harassment and its deeply routed and ever growing cost is often ignored. One such article: The study Estimating the Organizational Costs of Sexual Harassment: The Case of U.S. Army (Robert H. Faley, Deborah Erdos Knapp, Gary A, Kustis, Cathy L. Z. Dubois) tested the implication of sexual harassment on the organizational costs. The increasing costs of sexual harassment encouraged organizations to give attention to the issue of sexual harassment. These costs initially included litigation and associated settlements. However, with further research it was found that harassment can lead to an overall decrease in employee motivation towards the job resulting in increases in absentees, turnover, and requests for transfers, and use of mental health services, as well as decreases in productivity (Gutek Koss, 1993; Martindale, 1990; U. S. Merit Systems Protection Board, 1981 and 1987). This study states that results indicate that the total annual cost of sexual harassment in the U.S. Army in 1988 was over $250,000,000. This not only brought attention to the organizational costs of s exual harassment and also to the seriousness of the problem as well. However, this study concludes that increase in the proportion of females in the military would increase that part of the total costs of harassment associated with females and as a result the cost of sexual harassment may grow even more. Furthermore it implies that losing a higher rank female in the army due to sexual harassment would cost a staggering amount. Hence sexual harassment continues to be a threat not only to the working individuals but also harms the companies financially. Gender Mainstreaming and Corporate Social Responsibility: Reporting Workplace Issues (Kate Grosser, Jeremy Moon 2005) focuses on the potential of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to gender equality. The paper states that women are provided equal opportunity in the workplace by the combination of legal compliance, business care and social regulation (Dickens 1999) and the theory of CSR combines all these three notions. This study suggests that a reason for slow progress in reporting gender issues is the lack of platform for gender issues to be discusses. The study has highlights the under-representation of womens issues and has stressed on the need of women representation in company practices, as employees, community members, consumers and investors among other things. The impact of sexual harassment in a legal profession on job satisfaction is examined in The Effects of Sexual Harassment on Job Satisfaction, Earnings, and Turnover among Female Lawyers (David N. Laband and Bernard F. Lentz). The results from American Bar Associations National Survey of Career Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction (1990) show that nearly two-thirds of female lawyers in private practice and nearly half of those in corporate or public agency settings reported either experiencing or observing sexual harassment by male superiors, colleagues, or clients during the two years prior to the survey. The study shows that overall job satisfaction is significantly lower among female lawyers who experienced or witnessed sexual harassment by male superiors and colleagues than among those who did not experience or witness such harassment. According to statistics shown in the study, job satisfaction among female employees is affected more than twice as strongly by sexual harassment than by t heir annual income. The study also implies that there is a direct relation between sexual harassment and intention to quit current employment. However, the study was limited by the fact that the survey did not refer to the degree of harassment. Implementation Mechanism (Shamreeza Riaz) discusses the provision of law related to sexual harassment at workplace and the effectiveness of its implementation. This study was conducted in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Interviews were conducted with the work force of organizations, women activists, NGO workers and educational institutions. The writer argues that women participation in the making policies and in decision making can lead to a prosperous nation. However, the true potential of women is hindered due to the difficulties that they face at the work place. The Protection against Harassment of Women at the Workplace Act 2010 provides the definition and kinds of harassment at the workplace. According to the study, in 20-30% sexual harassment cases, women remain silent because of their dignity and self respect. 70% of the women are victims of physical harassment and verbal and other kinds of harassment. The writer lists the causes of harassment as lack of awareness, misuse of authori ty, lack of organizational policy and a male dominant society. The study shows that sexual harassment has very serious consequences resulting in the loss of job, a hostile environment and physical and psychological breakdown while some women are forced to quit their jobs. The International Labour Organization, United Nation on Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, Beijing program for action Declaration, European Union Legislation and Organization of American State all provide laws aiming to prevent gender discrimination. The study Branded: Corporate Image, Sexual Stereotyping, and the New Face of Capitalism (Dianne Avery, Marion G. Crain) aims to show how the adoption of sophisticated forms of marketing are distinct from the workers physical and mental labour. The study reveals the case of Jespersen v. Harrahs Operating Co. in which the court rejected a female bartenders Title VII challenge to the workplaces policy that women wear makeup, which she found sexually demeaning. Employers sophisticated marketing techniques sometimes create a property like interest and employers take advantage of their employees outside of their usual work by forcing them to propagate company brands outside of the workplace. Transforming discriminatory corporate cultures (Cheryl L. Wade) discusses gender equality in corporate environment. The writer argues that companies can only change if men change. She states that even if men witness discriminatory behaviour or harassment in their workplace, they fail to take necessary action that could promote gender equality. Many male managers may seem to support gender equality but still ignore gender conflicts in the work place. If the CEO of a company strives to bring a culture of gender equality then the workers will follow his example. Moreover, the writer states that sometimes women allow sexist comments and jokes to go unnoticed in an attempt to show that they belong to the right workplace. The corporate workplace also seems to work on the expectation that women of colour can be given jobs that are not valued in the corporate context. Hence, such negative stereotypes adversely affect the performance of women in the workplace. As the relationship between mana gement and its employees plays a central role in a companies success, it is necessary that problems of workplace discrimination be dealt with. The study Gender Justice and Its Critics focuses on the judicial practices and laws on gender discrimination. The article underlines the traditional treatment of women and the current condition of women. Women were victimized by the laws made to protect them by giving decision making powers to the male members. The writer states that in contrast to these laws, the remedial laws such as prohibition of sex-based discrimination in workplace have empowered women to make their own decisions. Laws which tried to prevent discriminatory practices have created distinct profession for men and women. Furthermore, Gender Justice claims that it is not opposed to the needs of working mothers but offers that parental benefits be given to both males and females. The study The Price of Man and Women: A Hedonic Pricing Model of Avatar Attributes in a Synthetic World (Edward Castronova 2003) investigates the demand of physical attributes and qualities of the social world. The study examines the computer generated avatars which are both male and female. However, the hedonic price analysis suggests that the female avatars are available at a discount and that there is less preference to have a female avatar. As this physical difference is not real in the synthetic world, this reluctance can be explained by the general assumption about the effectiveness of the female avatar. However, the study does not indicate whether this is arises from a prejudice on behalf of the population or simply the numbers indicate that more male players choose male avatars. This article was chosen because of the importance it holds in outside world other than corporate sector to give out an overview on the gender based difference one holds in his mind. They were shortcomings and left out concerns in those previous studies which can be looked upon on the basis of variables and introducing more measurable models which could relate and interlink the variables in appropriate and a strong way. Theoretical Framework DEMOGRAPHICS Characteristics of a human population Age Income Gender Race Experience Gender diversity Unfair treameant Promotion Placement Moral fairness Sexual orientation Female employee turnover Hiring firing. Work envirnoment Healthy Motivating Safety Stress Frequency of Women Promotion Number of times women get promoted at workplace More promotions to male or female? Productivity Equal treatment in terms of salary and promotion Drive Increased desire Encouragement Inspiration Motivated to work Level of satisfaction What one wants from a job and what one perceives it as offering Overall satisfaction Satisfaction with the job Satisfaction with the work Sense of achievement Scope of using own initiative Influence over the job Harrasment Offensive behaviour Intent to disturb or upset Unwanted sexual advances Bases of colour, race religion and sex Financial and recognition rewards Wages Salary Empower-ment Fringe benefits SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE TO ANALYZE THE CORRELATES OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION AND IT IMPACT ON MOTIVATION This questionnaire is being exclusively used for research purpose; all the information provided by respondents would be kept confidential. Your co-operation would be highly appreciated. Personal info: Name Age Experience in this organization Education Marital status Single Married Divorced Gender Male Female Income bracket 10,000-20,000 20,000- 50,000 50,000 above Section A Levels of Satisfaction Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree I enjoy at my workplace 1 2 3 4 5 Factors can be added to improve employee motivation at your workplace 1 2 3 4 5 Would you like to stay at your workplace for long 1 2 3 4 5 I am over all satisfied by the attitude of my boss and workplace 1 2 3 4 5 Do you feel as an important part of your organization 1 2 3 4 5 Are you satisfied by your designated authority 1 2 3 4 5 GENDER DIVERSITY: Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Mostly the supervisors are male 1 2 3 4 5 Majority of Co-workers are Male 1 2 3 4 5 I belive that I have equal opportunities and potential for growth as my other colleagues have 1 2 3 4 5 In my view discrimination does take place at workplace. 1 2 3 4 5 At times I have been judged/mistreated on criteria which is not merit based 1 2 3 4 5 You have been treated and judged on the basis of Gender 1 2 3 4 5 1)Race 1 2 3 4 5 2)Physical appearance 1 2 3 4 5 3)Religion 1 2 3 4 5 Working enviornement and Harassment: Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree My company is strict on the laws of harassment. 1 2 3 4 5 In majority of workplace harassment cases the harasser is 1) immediate boss 1 2 3 4 5 2) Subordinates 1 2 3 4 5 3)Colleagues 1 2 3 4 5 Verbal harassment takes place 1)openly 1 2 3 4 5 Equal gender treatment creates a healthy environment at workplace. 1 2 3 4 5 If harassment occurs verbally my response would be 1)to react to the harasser the first time 1 2 3 4 5 2)Report the harassment to my boss 1 2 3 4 5 3) I would bear with it because there is no other choice. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree I have been mistreated in an offensive manner because of my Gender. 1 2 3 4 5 Offensive treatment harm your ability to work. 1 2 3 4 5 I have switched my job because of unequal treatment 1 2 3 4 5 Harassment results in increased stress and anxiety 1 2 3 4 5 Frequency of promotions: Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree I have been quickly promoted to the post I am today. 1 2 3 4 5 Male workers get frequent promotions 1 2 3 4 5 Female have more chances of getting hired for a job at first place when the interviewee is Male 1 2 3 4 5 Male have more chances of getting hired for a job at first place when the interview is Female. 1 2 3 4 5 Female workers most get in house assignment as compared to traveling assignment 1 2 3 4 5 Female get more sexually harassed than men 1 2 3 4 5 MOTIVATION: Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Discrimination affects my productivity 1 2 3 4 5 Male workers are paid more salary/wage as compared to female for the same job description 1 2 3 4 5 Male workers are more empowered to take decisions 1 2 3 4 5 Male and Female workers get same Fringe benefits 1 2 3 4 5 Low percentage of female getting promoted than men works as a less motivating factor. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Men feel more superior than women which affects motivation for women in negative way 1 2 3 4 5 Some people get desperate things to get promoted 1 2 3 4 5 Women get more limited opportunities than Men contributing negatively towards motivation 1 2 3 4 5 General training has been given to staff a your workplace in connection with general duty to promote equality between Men and Women 1 2 3 4 5 Men and Women are treated equally when it comes to performance Appraisals and analysis. 1 2 3 4 5

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