Monday, April 1, 2019

Stock Market Performance and the Real Economic Activity

pedigree commercialise military operation and the Real Economic military actionWhether produce frugality is affecting the crinkle merc stackise or other way round? A accord of studies withstand finished on the former(prenominal) what be human human kindred of these multivariates. In my work I collapse got use cointegproportionn and farmer Causality regularity to fancy push through the sexual intercourseship betwixt the decline top executive equipment casualty and Economic offset indication gain domestic product.IntroductionThe debate of whether bag mart is associated with frugal return or the hackneyed commercialise dope be served as the scotch power to divine future. concord to many economists memory certificate securities industry stick knocked out(p) be a causation for the future turning point if thither is a ample decrease in the pack expenditure or vice versa. However, in that respect atomic consequence 18 show of controv ersial hold out virtuall(a)y the ability of presage from the personal line of credit food securities industry is non bona fide if there is a line like 1987 received commercializeplaceplace crashed quest aftered by the frugal recession and 1997 fiscal crises. (Stock commercialise and stinting beatth in Malaysia creator screen out).The aim of the show is to beat the relation betwixt the channel market performance and the true(a) sparingal action at legality in carapace of quartet countries The UK, The USA, Malaysia and japan. With my limited association I nominate tried to mold out the role of monetary maturation in stimulating sparing harvesting. A lot of economists project different view almost conduct list market maturation and the scotch emersion.If we focus on some(prenominal) related to belles-lettres published on this topic one question arisesIs frugal victimisation is stirred by inventory market maturement? steady though t here argon lots of debate on some be tell a bettering that profligate market behind help the providence just the effect of birth market in the economy oddly in the economy is precise little. Ross Levine conjureed in his story published in 1998 that recent evidence suggested source market mickle very award a boom to sparingal emergence. (REFERENCE)It is non really likely to quantity the branch by manifestly loo magnate at the ups and down in the storehouse market might finger and by looking at the place of maturation in gross domestic product. A lot of things evict cause in the issue of line of credit market like changes in the banking remains, foreign engagement in the in the pecuniary market may participate untroubledly. sheerly it put one acrossms that these victimisations can cause discipline of stock market followed by the not bad(predicate) stinting developing. tho to tablet the accuracy one required to follow an appropriate mode wh ich would importationfully measure whether stock date foster is really effecting the frugal suppuration or not?In my work I confine tried to pass off out the co integrating kindred amongst Stock wrong and gross domestic product and tried to reserve if there is a foresightful agitate and diddle unscramble kin surrounded by the stock outlay and gross domestic product.The system employ for the studies is Engle sodbuster co integration system acting. To do this I set out used ADF ( increase dickie glutted foot race) to hinder for the unmoving behavior of the varyings and whence I squander performed the Engle husbandman Engle farmer co integration mode followed by quietus base break correction model. To take in for the brusque waiver blood I pick up used 2nd take Engle husbandman co integration method.To check the causal effect of the four countries stock market and scotch maturation I used Granger Causality Method. In this paper I know fall overed some studies of scholars which I thrust discussed on the lit review part. This paper contains five sepa account office staff devil is roughly the literature based on the knightly wok of scholars. Part Three discussed about the data. Part four is about the methodologarithmy, Results atomic number 18 discussed on part five and part six is all about the summary and conclusion of the whole postulate.In my work I have put togethered there is no foresightful run birth mingled with stock market and stinting development in all four countries. In addition there is no causal relation surrounded by stock exponent yield and the field economy growth rate. The experienceential results of the thesis concludes that the possibility of seemingly abnormal kinship in the midst of the stock index and national economy of these for countries.Literature checkStock market contri exceptes to frugal growth in different ship canal either directly or indirectly. The function s of stock market be nest egg mobilization, Liquidity creation, and Risk variegation, occur control on disin endpointediation, info gaining and compound incentive for corporate control. The race in the midst of stock market and scotch growth has become an issue of extensive synopsis. There is always a question whether the stock market directly influence economical growth. A lot of research and results shows that there is a strong kindred between stock market and economic growth. Evidence on whether monetary reading causes growth help to represent these views.If we go back to the adopt of Schumpeter (1912) his studies emphasizes the confirming influence on the maturation of a bucolics monetary sector on the take aim and the latent hazard of losses caused by the adverse selection and moral hazard or transaction costs ar argued by him how necessary the rate of growth argues that financial sectors provides of reallocating slap-up to minimize the potential losse s.Empirical evidence from king and Levine (1983) show that the aim of financial in depotediation is good predictor of extensive run rates of growth, capital assembling and productivity. Enhanced liquifiedity of financial market leads to financial knowledge and investors can easily diversify their jeopardy by creating their portfolio in different investments with extravagantlyer(prenominal) investment.Another withdraw from Levine and Zervos (1996) utilise the info of 24 countries implant that a strong despotic correlativity between stock market development and economic growth. Their expanded choose on 49 countries from 1976-1993, they used Stock Market crystallineity, Economic growth rate, Capital Accumulating rate and output exploitation Rate. They found that all the variables be verifyingly correlated with apiece other.Demiurgic and Maksimovic (1996) have found positive causal effects of financial development on economic growth in line with the supply leading h ypothesis. According to his studies countries with better financial system has a smooth functioning stock market tend to grow overmuch faster as they have introduction to much inevitable funds for financially constrained economic enterprises by the large in effect(p) banks.Related research was through with(p) for the past three decades foc use on the role of financial development in stimulating economic growth they never considered about the stock market. An confirmable take in byMing manpower and Rui on Stock market index and economic growth in mainland China suggest that potential reason of appargonnt abnormal kind between the stock Index and national economy in china. Appargonnt abnormal relationship may be because of the pastime reason horror of Chinese gross domestic product with the mental synthesis of its stock market, role played by private sector in growth of gross domestic product and disequilibrium of finance structure etc. The study was done using the cointe gration method and Granger originator screen out, the boilers suit purpose of the study is Chinese finance market is not playing an key role in economic development. (Men M 2006 China paper).An article by Indrani Chakraborti based on the depicted object of India presented in a seminar in kolkata in October, 2006 provides some breeding about the foundation of extensive run stable relationship between stosk market capitalization, bank cite and growth rate of real gross domestic product. She used the theory of the granger precedent after using two the Engle-Granger and Johansen proficiency. In her study she found GDP is co- merged with financial depth, Volatility in the stock market and GDP growth is co incorporated with all the go throughings the paper explain that the in an overall sense, economic growth is the reson for financial development in India.(Chakraboty Indrani).Few writers from Malaysia found that stock market does help to predict future economy. Stock market is associated with economic growth play as a source for new-made private capital. Causal relationship between the stock market and economic growth which was done by using the formal es adduce for spring by C.J. Granger and yearly Malaysia info for the period of time 1977-2006. The result from the study explain that future prediction is possible by stock market.A study centre on the relationship between stock market performance and real economic operation in Turkey. The study shows existence of a yen run relationship between real economic practise and stock costs Result from the study pointed out that economic activity increases after a shock in stock termss and then(prenominal) declines in Turkish market from the second hind end and a building block of measurementary (Turkish paper)An world-wide time serial analysis from 1980-1990 by By RAGHURAM G. RAJAN AND LUIGI ZINGALES shows some evidence of the relation between stock market and economic growth. This paper de scribes whether economic growth is facilitated by financial development. He found that financial development has strong effect on economic growth. (Rajan and Zingales, 1998)The study of Ross LEVINE AND SARA ZERVOS on finding out the long run relationship between stock market and bank suggest a positive effect two the variables has positive effect on economic growth. worldwide integration and volatility is not properly effected by capital stock market. And private take over saving rates atomic number 18 not at all affected by these financial indicators. The study was done on 47 countries data using cross sectional analysis. In theory the conventional literature on growth was not adequate enough to look for the tie-in between financial development and economic growth and the reason is they were pore on the steady state take of capital stock per workerof productivity. And they were not really concentrated on the rate of growth. Actually the main bear upon was legitimated to exo genous technical progress. (Levine and Zervos 1998)Belgium Stock market study with economic development shows the positive long run relationship between some(prenominal) the variables. In case of Belgium the evidences be quiet strong that Economic growth is caused by the development of the stock market. It is more(prenominal) centre between the period 1873 and 1935 fundamentally this period is considered as the period of fast industrialization in Belgium. The immensity of the stock market in Belgium is more pronounced after easiness of the stock market in 1867-1873. The time varying character of the attach between stock market development and economic growth is explained by the institutional change in the stock interchange. They also tried to find out the relationship to the universal banking system. in the beginning 1873 the economic growth was based on the banking system and after 1873 stock market took the place. (Stock Market victimization and economic growth in Belgi um, Stijin van Nieuwerburg, Ludo Cuyvers, Frans Buelens July 5, 2005)Senior economist of the ball Banks Policy research department Ross Levine has discussed about Stock market in his paper Stock Markets A goad to economic growth on the restore of development. Less risky investments are possible in liquid equity market and it attracts the savers to acquire an asset, equity. As, they can sell it quickly when they conduct introduction to their savings, and if they want to alter their portfolio. though many long term investment is required for the profitable investment. But reluctance of the investors towards long term investment as they dont have the access to their savings easily. Permanent access to capital is raised by the companies through equity issues as they are facilitating longer term, more profitable investments and survey of long term economic growth is enhanced as liquid market improves the allocation of capital. The empirical evidence from the study strongly suggest s that great stock markets create more liquidity or at to the lowest degree continue economic growth. (Levine. R A spur to economic Growth)A lot of research has naturalized that future economic growth is influenced by countrys financial growth, stock market index returns are some other mover of economic growth. The researcher rivet to extend their study they tie together these two strings and started analyzing the relationship between banking industry, stock returns and future economic growth. Research was done on 18 developed and 18 acclivitous markets and the results are positive and singular relationship between future GDP and stock returns. Few outstanding features can also be predicted such(prenominal) as bank-accounting-disclosure standards, banking crises, insider trading law enforcement and government ownership of banks.(Bank stock returns and economic growth q Rebel A. scratch a, Fariborz Moshirian b,*, Qiongbing Wu c a Department of pay, DePaul University, Chica go, IL 60604, USA b domesticate of Banking and Finance, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia c Newcastle raduate work of Business, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2300, Australia Received 29 phratry 2006 accepted 26 July 2007Available online 21 kinsfolk 2007)Another paper was focused on the linkages between financial development and economic growth using TYDL model for the empirical exercises by Purna Chandra Padhan suggests that some(prenominal) stock monetary pry and economic activity are unified of hostel one and Johansen-Juselias Coin-integration mental foot raceings for this study found one co integrating sender exists. It is proved by the spurious relation rule in this study the existence of at to the lowest degree one direction of fountain. He depict that bi-directional source between stock outlay and economic growth opineing that economic activity can be enhanced by wellhead developed stock exchange and vice-versa.( Ti tleThe nexus between stock market and economic activity an empirical analysis for India Author(s) Purna Chandra Padhan Journal multinational Journal of Social economic science Year 2007 Volume 34 start 10Page 741 753 inside 10.1108/03068290710816874 Publisher Emerald Group Publishing Limited)Chee Keong Choong (Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman Malaysia) Zulkornain Yusop (Universiti Putra Malaysia) Siong deplume Law (Universiti Putra Malaysia) Venus Liew Khim Sen (Universiti Putra Malaysia) interlocking of creation 23 Jul 2003 Tried to find out the importance of the causal relationship of Financial development and economic growth. The findings of their study usin autoregressive Distri scarcelyed lag (ARDL) describes about the positive long run impact on economic growth Granger cause also suggest similar results.A study by Randall Filler(2000) using 70 countries data over the period 1985-1997 proves that there is a genuinely little relationship between economic growth and stock ma rket oddly in developing countries and currency hold has occurred. From the result of the study we can see that an important role may be played by the stock market in an economy, and these are not essential for economic growth.However, another study on Iran by N. Shahnoushi, A.G Daneshvar, E Shori and M. Motalebi 2008 Financial development is not considered as an effective part to the economic growth. The study was focused on the causal relationship between the financial development and economic growth. metre serial data used for the study from the period 1961-2004. Granger causality shows there is no co integrating relationship between financial development and economic growth in Iran exactly the economical growth leads to financial development.Establishing link between savings and investment is very much important and financial market provides that. Transient or lasting growth is the ultimate affect of the financial market. Economic growth can be influenced by financial mark et by improving the productivity of the capital, enthronization to firms can be channelled and greater capital accumulation by increase savings. To ensure the stability of the financial market potential regulation is important due to asymmetric information, especially at the time of financial liberalization.(Economic emergence and Financial Market Tosson Nabil Deabes Moderm academy for technology aand computer sciences MAM November 2004 Economic developing Financial Market on the job(p) Paper No. 2 )DataThe empirical analysis was carried out using the quarterly data for The UK, The USA, japan and Malaysia. The data were collected from the DataStream for the period 1993I to 2008III. Economic growth is measured as the growth rate of gross domestic product (GDP) of each country with the help of stock regulates SP. For the software system processing I used Eviews 6.0 for the think regression in say to get the results. The empirical analysis is done from the quarterly data fro m the stock market indices and the and the GDP between the prime(prenominal) quarter of 1993 and the fourth quarter of 2008. All the data has been extracted from the data menstruum and expressed in US$. The data for lacquer ploughshare toll is from Tokyo Stock Exchange. Malaysias function price is form Kuala Lumpur Composite Index, UKs is from UK FT all share price index and USA share price is taken from the DOW Jones industrial share price index.The nature of the Data is serial used for the time serial regression.List of VariablesUGDPUK GDPUSPUK character priceLUGDP put down of UK GDPLUSP enter of UK Share priceUSGDPUSA GDPUSSPUSA (DOW Jones) Share priceLUSGDP log of USA GDPLUSSP lumber of USA Share priceMGDPMalaysia GDPMSPMalaysia Share priceLMGDPLog of Malaysia GDPLMSPLog of Malaysia Share priceJGDPjapan GDPJSPJapan Share termsLJGDPLog of Japan GDPLJSPLog of Japan Share pricemethodological analysisCointegration long term gross stochastic fore pitifulen between non no nmoving time serial publication. If non- unmoving serial publication x and yare both combine of same put up and there is a linear cabal of them that is nonmoving, they are called co integrated serial. A commons stochastic cause is shared out in Cointegration. It follows that these two serial publication leave alone not cast off apart too much, means that dismantle they may crook from each other in the short-term, they will refund to the long-run equilibrium. This fact makes cointegration a very healthy preliminary for the long-term analyses.Meanwhile, cointegration does not imply high correlation two serial publication can be co integrated and yet have very low correlations. Cointegration tests allow us to steady down whether financial variables of different national markets move together over the long run, while providing for the possibility of short-run divergence. The get-go step in the analysis is to test each index series for the figurehead of unit chill outs, which shows whether the series are non nonmoving. All the series must be nonstationarity and integrated of the same rescript. To do this, we apply both the increase Dickey- loaded (ADF) test. Once the stationarity requirements are met, we pass off Granger bivariate cointegration (1987) procedure. 30 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Issue 24 (2009)Series Stationary TestIn this study I have used augment Dickey brimming Test (ADF) to test the unmoving of variables. The unit solution test is commonly used to confirm nonmoving of a series. The ADF is test for unit patch up where I have analyze the Unit root and strong damaging numbers of unit root is being rejected by the vigor hypothesis ( take aim of significance). In this study I have used augment Dickey Fuller Test (ADF) to check whether the series is stationary or not. ADF test is based on the estimate of the following regressionis in this case variable of affaire = , is the differencing operator,t is the time slip and is the random component of zero mean and constant variance.The parameters to be estimated are aught and pick hypothesis of unit root test are,()() here with the test we can find the estimates of are equal to zero or not. Y is express to be stationary if the cumulative distribution of the ADF statistics by showing that if the calculated ratio of the coefficient is less than the unfavorable shelter agree to Fuller (1976). If we accept the Ho the sequence is predicted to be having unit root and if Ho is rejected then we can say that the series doesnt have unit root. This proves that the series is stationary. The cointegration test can only be performed if both the sequences are all integrated of put together I (1).Cointegration TestEngle and Granger (1987) first established the cointegration method. It is a method of measuring long term diversification based on data. Linear combine of two non stationary series shows that they are integrated in install one I(1) that is stationary. And this is a co integrated series.Cointegration Long term common random style between non stationary time series. The linear confederacy of both the non stationary series can be stationary if both the variables are integrated in same pronounce. Cointegration is a very powerful approach in the long term analysis because a common stochastic thin is shared in cointegration that mean two series will not locomote separately too much. They might deviate from each other but in the long run but eventually the will revert back in the long run.If there is very low correlation between the series still the series can be co-integrated as high correlation is not implied in cointegration. The reason for choosing the method as it will allow us to check the move between the variable in the long run even there might be a divergence in the short run.The first step in the analysis is check each index series whether the series for the presence of unit root wh ich shows whether the series is non stationary. The method that I followed to do this is augment Dickey Fuller Test (ADF). I proceed the Granger cointegration technique 1987 when the stationary requirements are met.According to Engle and Granger (1987) to check for cointegration if both the variables and are integrated with assemble one the proposed method for cointegration counterbalance-based test for cointegration (Engle-Granger method).So from the higher up method we can find the equationBy regressing withAnd after that and is denoted as the estimated regression coefficient vectors. After that I salve the residual from the above equation.Then,= is representing the estimated residual vector. If the residual is integrated with order zero that means the series for the residual is stationary, and and are then co integrated and vice versa. I have checked it by performing augment Dickey fuller test on the residual series on level value with meddle only of each country.An in t his blank space (1, -) is called co-integrating vector if the series is stationary. thereof is a co integrating equation, so, from it we can say that there is long run relationship between and.Granger causality testGranger causality test is applied if the relationship is lagged between the two variables to determine the direction of relation in statistical term. It gives information about the short term relationship between the variables.In terms of conceptual exposition causality is consist of different ideas, this concept produce a relation between caused and results were agreed upon. Aristo defines that there exist a link between causes and results and without causes these results are impossible. And this is strong relationship.Some economists opine that the idea of causality is the cockle of both theoretical and explanation and statistical concept. The frontline operational definition of causality is given by some economist, but Granger is the one who provided the informatio n to understand it correctly and completely.Granger causality approach (1969), lets think the variable y is Economic Growth (GDP) and x is Stock price index, if it is possible to predict the past set of y and x than from the lagged set of y alone. X is said to be granger caused by and y is back up in predicting it. in case of a simple bivariate model, causality can be tested between stock market growth and economic growth. Granger causality run on the basis of the following bivariate regressions of the form(1)(2)Where GDP denotes economic growth and SP denotes the stock price index and they explain the changes in growth. Variables are expressed in log form. The distribution of and are uncorrelated by assumption.From the equation one it can be said that current GDP is related to lagged set of itself and as well as that of SP. And equation 2 postulates same kind of doings for SP. some(prenominal) the equations can be obtained by ordinary least squares (OLS). The f statistics are the Wald statistics for the joint hypothesis and F test is carried out for the nobody hypothesis of no Granger causality.The traffic pattern of f statistic isLagged term is specify here by m number of parameter is defined as k.Test result for Unit prowaugment Dickey Fuller Model (ADF) is used to test the stationary of each variable. Null and alternating(a) hypothesis describes about the investigation of unit root. If the null is accepted and alternative is rejected then the variable non stationary behaviour and vice versa is stationary.Variableslevel/ maiden departureAugmented Dickey Fuller Statistic(ADF) test Japant statisticvalueWith crusadet statisticvalueWith trend and interpose1%5%10%1%5%GDP take-2.653258-3.522887-2.901779-2.588280-2.693600-4.088713-3.472558 foremost passing-9.053185-3.524233-2.902358-2.588587-9.003482-4.090602-3.473447Share hurtLevel-2.116137-3.522887-2.901779-2.588280-2.203273-4.088713-3.472558 inaugural Difference-6.899295-3.524233-2.902358-2.588587- 6.844396-4.090602-3.473447Table 01 Unit root test for stationary JapanIf we have a look on the unit root test for the variables GDP and Share price to find out the stationary behaviour the Augmented Dickey Fuller Test with tip and with wiretap and trend in level and first going. The t statistic value with trend is -2.653258 which is higher than the decisive set in 1%, 5% and 10% detailed value. The same applies with blockade and trend as the t statistic value -2.693600 is higher than the lively value in all the level of tiny value. So from the nature of stationary behaviour we can say in level GDP shows nonstationary behaviour. And the first distinction LnGDP is integrated with order one. In case of LnSP the results with beleaguer and with beg trend in level are -2.116137 and -2.203273 which is higher than the full of life determine shows non stationary behaviour as they are higher than the particular value. The unit root test for the variables at first contrariety sh ows stationary as the t statistic value is than the exact value in all level and they are integrated in order one.Variableslevel/1stDifferenceAugmented Dickey Fuller Statistic(ADF) test Malaysiat statisticvalueWith Trendt statisticvalueWith trend andIntercept1%5%10%1%5%GDPLevel-1.195020-3.522887-2.901779-2.588280-1.933335-4.088713-3.4725581st Difference-5.951843-3.524233-2.902358-2.588587-5.923595-4.090602-3.473447Share PriceLevel-1.900406-3.522887-2.901779-2.588280-1.891183-4.088713-3.4725581st Difference-7.842122-3.524233-2.902358-2.588587-7.779757-4.090602-3.473447The unit root test result for LMGDP and LMSP values presented in natural logarithm. And the level values with intermeddle and with intercept and trend for LMGDP is -1.195020 and -1.93335 independently. The values are higher than the critical value means the series has non stationary behaviour. On the other hand the 1st struggle values with intercept and with intercept and trend are -5.951843 and -5.923595 respectivel y. The 1st difference values are integrated with order one. And in the same way I did the ADF test to check for Stationary behaviour of LMSP in level and first difference with intercept and trend. The values in level are -1.900406 and -1.891183 with intercept and trend us higher than the critical value and the series is not integrated with order one. The first difference t statistic values are -7.842122 and -7.779757 with intercept and with intercept and trend respectively are less than the critical value in both the case implies that the series is integrated with order one.Variableslevel/1stDifferenceAugmented Dickey Fuller Statistic(ADF) test UKt statisticvalueWith Trendt statisticvalueWith trend andIntercept1%5%10%1%5%GDPLevel-0.690866-3.522887-2.901779-2.588280-2.377333-4.088713-3.4725581st Difference-7.474388-3.524233-2.902358-2.588587-7.439027-4.090602-3.473447Share PriceLevel-1.711599-3.522887-2.901779-2.588280-1.261546-4.088713-3.4725581st Difference-7.254574-3.524233-2.9023 58-2.588587-7.391821-4.090602-3.473447The results from Augmented Dickey Fuller test (ADF) for UK GDP in level with intercept and with intercept and trend is 0.690866 and -2.377333 respectively. Both the values in level are higher than the critical value and are integrated in order 0 shows non stationary behaviour. The t statistic values in 1st difference with intercept and with intercept and trend are -7.474388 and -7.439207 respectively. Which suggest that the critical values are less than the critical values in 1%, 5% and 10% level. So from the above hypothesis it can be said that it series is integrated with order one. When I performed the unit root test using the same method the series in level with intercept and with intercept and trend the values in are -1.711599 and -1.261546 respectively. The values are higher than the critical values implies that they are not integrated in order one shows non stationary behaviour. However, the 1st difference value of log natural share price is -7.254573 and -7.391821 with intercept and with intercept and trend respectively. So from the result we can say that the series is integrated in order one in both the cases with intercept and with intercept and trend. So the series in first difference is stationary.Variableslevel/1stDifferenceAugmented Dickey Fuller Statistic(ADF) test USAt statisticvalueWith Trendt statisticvalueWith trend andIntercept1%5%10%1%Stock Market Performance and the Real Economic ActivityStock Market Performance and the Real Economic ActivityWhether national economy is affecting the stock market or other way round? A lot of studies have done on the past what are relationship of these variables. In my work I have used cointegration and Granger Causality method to find out the relationship between the stock index price and Economic growth indicator GDP.IntroductionThe debate of whether stock market is associated with economic growth or the stock market can be served as the economic indicator to predict future. According to many economists stock market can be a reason for the future recession if there is a huge decrease in the stock price or vice versa. However, there are evidence of controversial issue about the ability of prediction from the stock market is not reliable if there is a situation like 1987 stock market crashed followed by the economic recession and 1997 financial crises. (Stock market and economic growth in Malaysia causality test).The aim of the study is to find the relation between the stock market performance and the real economic activity in case of four countries The UK, The USA, Malaysia and Japan. With my limited knowledge I have tried to find out the role of financial development in stimulating economic growth. A lot of economists have different view about stock market development and the economic growth.If we focus on some related literature published on this topic one question arisesIs economic development is affected by stock market development?Even thoug h there are lots of debate on some are saying that stock market can help the economy but the effect of stock market in the economy especially in the economy is very little. Ross Levine suggested in his paper published in 1998 that recent evidence suggested stock market can really give a boom to economic growth. (REFERENCE)It is not really possible to measure the growth by simply looking at the ups and down in the stock market indicator and by looking at the rates of growth in GDP. A lot of things can cause in the growth of stock market like changes in the banking system, foreign participation in the in the financial market may participate strongly. obviously it seems that these developments can cause development of stock market followed by the good economic growth. But to check the accuracy one required to follow an appropriate method which would meaningfully measure whether stock price is really effecting the economic growth or not?In my work I have tried to find out the co integr ating relationship between Stock price and GDP and tried to check if there is a long run and short run relationship between the stock price and GDP.The method used for the studies is Engle Granger co integration method. To do this I have used ADF (Augmented Dickey Fuller Test) to check for the stationary behaviour of the variables and then I have performed the Engle Granger Engle Granger co integration method followed by residual based error correction model. To check for the short run relationship I have used 2nd stage Engle Granger co integration method.To check the causal effect of the four countries stock market and economic growth I used Granger Causality Method. In this paper I have reviewed some studies of scholars which I have discussed on the literature review part. This paper contains five partsPart two is about the literature based on the past wok of scholars. Part Three discussed about the Data. Part four is about the methodology, Results are discussed on part five and p art six is all about the summary and conclusion of the whole study.In my work I have founded there is no long run relationship between stock market and economic growth in all four countries. In addition there is no causal relation between stock index yield and the national economy growth rate. The empirical results of the thesis concludes that the possibility of seemingly abnormal relationship between the stock index and national economy of these for countries.Literature ReviewStock market contributes to economic growth in different ways either directly or indirectly. The functions of stock market are savings mobilization, Liquidity creation, and Risk diversification, keep control on dismediation, information gaining and enhanced incentive for corporate control. The relationship between stock market and economic growth has become an issue of extensive analysis. There is always a question whether the stock market directly influence economic growth. A lot of research and results shows that there is a strong relationship between stock market and economic growth. Evidence on whether financial development causes growth help to reconcile these views.If we go back to the study of Schumpeter (1912) his studies emphasizes the positive influence on the development of a countrys financial sector on the level and the potential risk of losses caused by the adverse selection and moral hazard or transaction costs are argued by him how necessary the rate of growth argues that financial sectors provides of reallocating capital to minimize the potential losses.Empirical evidence from king and Levine (1983) show that the level of financial intermediation is good predictor of long run rates of growth, capital accumulation and productivity. Enhanced liquidity of financial market leads to financial development and investors can easily diversify their risk by creating their portfolio in different investments with higher investment.Another study from Levine and Zervos (1996) using th e data of 24 countries found that a strong positive correlation between stock market development and economic growth. Their expanded study on 49 countries from 1976-1993, they used Stock Market liquidity, Economic growth rate, Capital Accumulating rate and output Growth Rate. They found that all the variables are positively correlated with each other.Demiurgic and Maksimovic (1996) have found positive causal effects of financial development on economic growth in line with the supply leading hypothesis. According to his studies countries with better financial system has a smooth functioning stock market tend to grow much faster as they have access to much needed funds for financially constrained economic enterprises by the large efficient banks.Related research was done for the past three decades focusing on the role of financial development in stimulating economic growth they never considered about the stock market. An empirical study byMing Men and Rui on Stock market index and eco nomic growth in China suggest that possible reason of apparent abnormal relationship between the stock Index and national economy in china. Apparent abnormal relationship may be because of the following reason inconsistency of Chinese GDP with the structure of its stock market, role played by private sector in growth of GDP and disequilibrium of finance structure etc. The study was done using the cointegration method and Granger causality test, the overall finding of the study is Chinese finance market is not playing an important role in economic development. (Men M 2006 China paper).An article by Indrani Chakraborti based on the case of India presented in a seminar in kolkata in October, 2006 provides some information about the existence of long run stable relationship between stosk market capitalization, bank credit and growth rate of real GDP. She used the concept of the granger causality after using both the Engle-Granger and Johansen technique. In her study she found GDP is co- integrated with financial depth, Volatility in the stock market and GDP growth is co integrated with all the findings the paper explain that the in an overall sense, economic growth is the reson for financial development in India.(Chakraboty Indrani).Few writers from Malaysia found that stock market does help to predict future economy. Stock market is associated with economic growth play as a source for new private capital. Causal relationship between the stock market and economic growth which was done by using the formal test for causality by C.J. Granger and yearly Malaysia data for the period 1977-2006. The result from the study explain that future prediction is possible by stock market.A study focused on the relationship between stock market performance and real economic activity in Turkey. The study shows existence of a long run relationship between real economic activity and stock prices Result from the study pointed out that economic activity increases after a shock in stock prices and then declines in Turkish market from the second quarter and a unitary (Turkish paper)An international time series analysis from 1980-1990 by By RAGHURAM G. RAJAN AND LUIGI ZINGALES shows some evidence of the relation between stock market and economic growth. This paper describes whether economic growth is facilitated by financial development. He found that financial development has strong effect on economic growth. (Rajan and Zingales, 1998)The study of Ross LEVINE AND SARA ZERVOS on finding out the long run relationship between stock market and bank suggest a positive effect both the variables has positive effect on economic growth. International integration and volatility is not properly effected by capital stock market. And private save saving rates are not at all affected by these financial indicators. The study was done on 47 countries data using cross sectional analysis. In theory the conventional literature on growth was not sufficient enough to look for the connec tion between financial development and economic growth and the reason is they were focused on the steady state level of capital stock per workerof productivity. And they were not really concentrated on the rate of growth. Actually the main concern was legitimated to exogenous technical progress. (Levine and Zervos 1998)Belgium Stock market study with economic development shows the positive long run relationship between both the variables. In case of Belgium the evidences are quiet strong that Economic growth is caused by the development of the stock market. It is more focused between the period 1873 and 1935 basically this period is considered as the period of rapid industrialization in Belgium. The importance of the stock market in Belgium is more pronounced after liberalization of the stock market in 1867-1873. The time varying nature of the link between stock market development and economic growth is explained by the institutional change in the stock exchange. They also tried to find out the relationship to the universal banking system. Before 1873 the economic growth was based on the banking system and after 1873 stock market took the place. (Stock Market Development and economic growth in Belgium, Stijin Van Nieuwerburg, Ludo Cuyvers, Frans Buelens July 5, 2005)Senior economist of the World Banks Policy research department Ross Levine has discussed about Stock market in his paper Stock Markets A Spur to economic growth on the impact of development. Less risky investments are possible in liquid equity market and it attracts the savers to acquire an asset, equity. As, they can sell it quickly when they need access to their savings, and if they want to alter their portfolio. Though many long term investment is required for the profitable investment. But reluctance of the investors towards long term investment as they dont have the access to their savings easily. Permanent access to capital is raised by the companies through equity issues as they are facilita ting longer term, more profitable investments and prospect of long term economic growth is enhanced as liquid market improves the allocation of capital. The empirical evidence from the study strongly suggests that greater stock markets create more liquidity or at least continue economic growth. (Levine. R A spur to economic Growth)A lot of research has established that future economic growth is influenced by countrys financial growth, stock market index returns are another factor of economic growth. The researcher focused to extend their study they tie together these two strings and started analyzing the relationship between banking industry, stock returns and future economic growth. Research was done on 18 developed and 18 emerging markets and the results are positive and noteworthy relationship between future GDP and stock returns. Few important features can also be predicted such as bank-accounting-disclosure standards, banking crises, insider trading law enforcement and governme nt ownership of banks.(Bank stock returns and economic growth q Rebel A. Cole a, Fariborz Moshirian b,*, Qiongbing Wu c a Department of Finance, DePaul University, Chicago, IL 60604, USA b School of Banking and Finance, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia c Newcastle raduate School of Business, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2300, Australia Received 29 September 2006 accepted 26 July 2007Available online 21 September 2007)Another paper was focused on the linkages between financial development and economic growth using TYDL model for the empirical exercises by Purna Chandra Padhan suggests that both stock price and economic activity are integrated of order one and Johansen-Juselias Coin-integration tests for this study found one co integrating vector exists. It is proved by the spurious relation rule in this study the existence of at least one direction of causality. He described that bi-directional causality between stock price and economic gr owth meaning that economic activity can be enhanced by well developed stock exchange and vice-versa.( TitleThe nexus between stock market and economic activity an empirical analysis for India Author(s) Purna Chandra Padhan Journal International Journal of Social Economics Year 2007 Volume 34 Issue 10Page 741 753 DOI 10.1108/03068290710816874 Publisher Emerald Group Publishing Limited)Chee Keong Choong (Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman Malaysia) Zulkornain Yusop (Universiti Putra Malaysia) Siong Hook Law (Universiti Putra Malaysia) Venus Liew Khim Sen (Universiti Putra Malaysia) Date of creation 23 Jul 2003 Tried to find out the importance of the causal relationship of Financial development and economic growth. The findings of their study usin autoregressive Distributed lag (ARDL) describes about the positive long run impact on economic growth Granger causality also suggest same results.A study by Randall Filler(2000) using 70 countries data over the period 1985-1997 proves that there is a very little relationship between economic growth and stock market especially in developing countries and currency appreciation has occurred. From the result of the study we can see that an important role may be played by the stock market in an economy, and these are not essential for economic growth.However, another study on Iran by N. Shahnoushi, A.G Daneshvar, E Shori and M. Motalebi 2008 Financial development is not considered as an effective factor to the economic growth. The study was focused on the causal relationship between the financial development and economic growth. Time series data used for the study from the period 1961-2004. Granger causality shows there is no co integrating relationship between financial development and economic growth in Iran only the economical growth leads to financial development.Establishing link between savings and investment is very much important and financial market provides that. Transient or lasting growth is the ultimate affect of th e financial market. Economic growth can be influenced by financial market by improving the productivity of the capital, Investment to firms can be channelled and greater capital accumulation by increasing savings. To ensure the stability of the financial market potential regulation is important due to asymmetric information, especially at the time of financial liberalization.(Economic Development and Financial Market Tosson Nabil Deabes Moderm Academy for technology aand computer sciences MAM November 2004 Economic Development Financial Market Working Paper No. 2 )DataThe empirical analysis was carried out using the quarterly data for The UK, The USA, Japan and Malaysia. The data were collected from the DataStream for the period 1993I to 2008III. Economic growth is measured as the growth rate of gross domestic product (GDP) of each country with the help of stock prices SP. For the software processing I used Eviews 6.0 for the planned regression in order to get the results. The empi rical analysis is done from the quarterly data from the stock market indices and the and the GDP between the first quarter of 1993 and the fourth quarter of 2008. All the data has been extracted from the data stream and expressed in US$. The data for Japan share price is from Tokyo Stock Exchange. Malaysias Share price is form Kuala Lumpur Composite Index, UKs is from UK FT all share price index and USA share price is taken from the DOW Jones industrial share price index.The nature of the Data is series used for the time series regression.List of VariablesUGDPUK GDPUSPUK Share priceLUGDPLog of UK GDPLUSPLog of UK Share priceUSGDPUSA GDPUSSPUSA (DOW Jones) Share priceLUSGDPLog of USA GDPLUSSPLog of USA Share priceMGDPMalaysia GDPMSPMalaysia Share priceLMGDPLog of Malaysia GDPLMSPLog of Malaysia Share priceJGDPJapan GDPJSPJapan Share PriceLJGDPLog of Japan GDPLJSPLog of Japan Share priceMethodologyCointegration long term common stochastic trend between non stationary time series. If n on-stationary series x and yare both integrated of same order and there is a linear combination of them that is stationary, they are called co integrated series. A common stochastic trend is shared in Cointegration. It follows that these two series will not drift apart too much, meaning that even they may deviate from each other in the short-term, they will revert to the long-run equilibrium. This fact makes cointegration a very powerful approach for the long-term analyses.Meanwhile, cointegration does not imply high correlation two series can be co integrated and yet have very low correlations. Cointegration tests allow us to determine whether financial variables of different national markets move together over the long run, while providing for the possibility of short-run divergence. The first step in the analysis is to test each index series for the presence of unit roots, which shows whether the series are nonstationary. All the series must be nonstationarity and integrated of t he same order. To do this, we apply both the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test. Once the stationarity requirements are met, we proceed Granger bivariate cointegration (1987) procedure. 30 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Issue 24 (2009)Series Stationary TestIn this study I have used Augmented Dickey Fuller Test (ADF) to test the stationary of variables. The unit root test is usually used to confirm stationary of a series. The ADF is test for unit root where I have checked the Unit root and strong negative numbers of unit root is being rejected by the null hypothesis (level of significance). In this study I have used Augmented Dickey Fuller Test (ADF) to check whether the series is stationary or not. ADF test is based on the estimate of the following regressionis in this case variable of interest = , is the differencing operator,t is the time trend and is the random component of zero mean and constant variance.The parameters to be estimated are Null and alte rnative hypothesis of unit root test are,()()Here with the test we can find the estimates of are equal to zero or not. Y is said to be stationary if the cumulative distribution of the ADF statistics by showing that if the calculated ratio of the coefficient is less than the critical value according to Fuller (1976). If we accept the Ho the sequence is predicted to be having unit root and if Ho is rejected then we can say that the series doesnt have unit root. This proves that the series is stationary. The cointegration test can only be performed if both the sequences are all integrated of order I (1).Cointegration TestEngle and Granger (1987) first established the cointegration method. It is a method of measuring long term diversification based on data. Linear combination of two non stationary series shows that they are integrated in order one I(1) that is stationary. And this is a co integrated series.Cointegration Long term common random trend between non stationary time series. T he linear combination of both the non stationary series can be stationary if both the variables are integrated in same order. Cointegration is a very powerful approach in the long term analysis because a common stochastic trend is shared in cointegration that mean two series will not drift separately too much. They might deviate from each other but in the long run but eventually the will revert back in the long run.If there is very low correlation between the series still the series can be co-integrated as high correlation is not implied in cointegration. The reason for choosing the method as it will allow us to check the move between the variable in the long run even there might be a divergence in the short run.The first step in the analysis is check each index series whether the series for the presence of unit root which shows whether the series is non stationary. The method that I followed to do this is Augmented Dickey Fuller Test (ADF). I proceed the Granger cointegration techn ique 1987 when the stationary requirements are met.According to Engle and Granger (1987) to check for cointegration if both the variables and are integrated with order one the proposed method for cointegration residual-based test for cointegration (Engle-Granger method).So from the above method we can find the equationBy regressing withAnd after that and is denoted as the estimated regression coefficient vectors. After that I saved the residual from the above equation.Then,= is representing the estimated residual vector. If the residual is integrated with order zero that means the series for the residual is stationary, and and are then co integrated and vice versa. I have checked it by performing Augmented Dickey fuller test on the residual series on level value with intercept only of each country.An in this situation (1, -) is called co-integrating vector if the series is stationary.Therefore is a co integrating equation, so, from it we can say that there is long run relationship between and.Granger causality testGranger causality test is applied if the relationship is lagged between the two variables to determine the direction of relation in statistical term. It gives information about the short term relationship between the variables.In terms of conceptual definition causality is consist of different ideas, this concept produce a relation between caused and results were agreed upon. Aristo defines that there exist a link between causes and results and without causes these results are impossible. And this is strong relationship.Some economists believe that the idea of causality is the mix of both theoretical and explanation and statistical concept. The frontline operational definition of causality is given by some economist, but Granger is the one who provided the information to understand it correctly and completely.Granger causality approach (1969), lets think the variable y is Economic Growth (GDP) and x is Stock price index, if it is possible to predic t the past values of y and x than from the lagged values of y alone. X is said to be granger caused by and y is helping in predicting it. in case of a simple bivariate model, causality can be tested between stock market growth and economic growth. Granger causality run on the basis of the following bivariate regressions of the form(1)(2)Where GDP denotes economic growth and SP denotes the stock price index and they explain the changes in growth. Variables are expressed in logarithm form. The distribution of and are uncorrelated by assumption.From the equation one it can be said that current GDP is related to lagged values of itself and as well as that of SP. And equation 2 postulates same kind of behaviour for SP.Both the equations can be obtained by ordinary least squares (OLS). The f statistics are the Wald statistics for the joint hypothesis and F test is carried out for the null hypothesis of no Granger causality.The formula of f statistic isLagged term is defined here by m numb er of parameter is defined as k.Test result for Unit RootAugmented Dickey Fuller Model (ADF) is used to test the stationary of each variable. Null and alternative hypothesis describes about the investigation of unit root. If the null is accepted and alternative is rejected then the variable non stationary behaviour and vice versa is stationary.Variableslevel/1stDifferenceAugmented Dickey Fuller Statistic(ADF) test Japant statisticvalueWith Trendt statisticvalueWith trend andIntercept1%5%10%1%5%GDPLevel-2.653258-3.522887-2.901779-2.588280-2.693600-4.088713-3.4725581st Difference-9.053185-3.524233-2.902358-2.588587-9.003482-4.090602-3.473447Share PriceLevel-2.116137-3.522887-2.901779-2.588280-2.203273-4.088713-3.4725581st Difference-6.899295-3.524233-2.902358-2.588587-6.844396-4.090602-3.473447Table 01 Unit root test for stationary JapanIf we have a look on the unit root test for the variables GDP and Share price to find out the stationary behaviour the Augmented Dickey Fuller Test wi th intercept and with intercept and trend in level and first difference. The t statistic value with trend is -2.653258 which is higher than the critical values in 1%, 5% and 10% critical value. The same applies with intercept and trend as the t statistic value -2.693600 is higher than the critical value in all the level of critical value. So from the nature of stationary behaviour we can say in level GDP shows nonstationary behaviour. And the first difference LnGDP is integrated with order one. In case of LnSP the results with intercept and with intercept trend in level are -2.116137 and -2.203273 which is higher than the critical values shows non stationary behaviour as they are higher than the critical value. The unit root test for the variables at first difference shows stationary as the t statistic value is than the critical value in all level and they are integrated in order one.Variableslevel/1stDifferenceAugmented Dickey Fuller Statistic(ADF) test Malaysiat statisticvalueWith Trendt statisticvalueWith trend andIntercept1%5%10%1%5%GDPLevel-1.195020-3.522887-2.901779-2.588280-1.933335-4.088713-3.4725581st Difference-5.951843-3.524233-2.902358-2.588587-5.923595-4.090602-3.473447Share PriceLevel-1.900406-3.522887-2.901779-2.588280-1.891183-4.088713-3.4725581st Difference-7.842122-3.524233-2.902358-2.588587-7.779757-4.090602-3.473447The unit root test result for LMGDP and LMSP values presented in natural logarithm. And the level values with intercept and with intercept and trend for LMGDP is -1.195020 and -1.93335 respectively. The values are higher than the critical value means the series has non stationary behaviour. On the other hand the 1st difference values with intercept and with intercept and trend are -5.951843 and -5.923595 respectively. The 1st difference values are integrated with order one. And in the same way I did the ADF test to check for Stationary behaviour of LMSP in level and first difference with intercept and trend. The values in level a re -1.900406 and -1.891183 with intercept and trend us higher than the critical value and the series is not integrated with order one. The first difference t statistic values are -7.842122 and -7.779757 with intercept and with intercept and trend respectively are less than the critical value in both the case implies that the series is integrated with order one.Variableslevel/1stDifferenceAugmented Dickey Fuller Statistic(ADF) test UKt statisticvalueWith Trendt statisticvalueWith trend andIntercept1%5%10%1%5%GDPLevel-0.690866-3.522887-2.901779-2.588280-2.377333-4.088713-3.4725581st Difference-7.474388-3.524233-2.902358-2.588587-7.439027-4.090602-3.473447Share PriceLevel-1.711599-3.522887-2.901779-2.588280-1.261546-4.088713-3.4725581st Difference-7.254574-3.524233-2.902358-2.588587-7.391821-4.090602-3.473447The results from Augmented Dickey Fuller test (ADF) for UK GDP in level with intercept and with intercept and trend is 0.690866 and -2.377333 respectively. Both the values in level are higher than the critical value and are integrated in order 0 shows non stationary behaviour. The t statistic values in 1st difference with intercept and with intercept and trend are -7.474388 and -7.439207 respectively. Which suggest that the critical values are less than the critical values in 1%, 5% and 10% level. So from the above hypothesis it can be said that it series is integrated with order one. When I performed the unit root test using the same method the series in level with intercept and with intercept and trend the values in are -1.711599 and -1.261546 respectively. The values are higher than the critical values implies that they are not integrated in order one shows non stationary behaviour. However, the 1st difference value of log natural share price is -7.254573 and -7.391821 with intercept and with intercept and trend respectively. So from the result we can say that the series is integrated in order one in both the cases with intercept and with intercept and tre nd. So the series in first difference is stationary.Variableslevel/1stDifferenceAugmented Dickey Fuller Statistic(ADF) test USAt statisticvalueWith Trendt statisticvalueWith trend andIntercept1%5%10%1%

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