Saturday, April 6, 2019

Music-Induced Affect as Treatment of Elderly Depression Essay Example for Free

practice of medicine-Induced motivate as Treatment of Elderly drop-off EssayAbstract Depression in ancient patients is one of the most prevalent psychological troubles today. However, research and knowledge regarding this undecided is particular(a) and those tangled in the application of this knowledge to help older individuals experiencing impression are lacking in efficient strategies and training. This paper aims to explore the efficacy of inducing corroborative affect through melody as a strategy in treating depression in elderly individuals. The paper focuses on the effectiveness of practice of medicine alone as tool in treating depression based on its cap susceptibility to induce domineering affect. It is hypothesized that positive affect continuously induced via music deep down a set time-period result diminish signs of depression.IntroductionDepression has recently been recognized as one of main psychological problems facing decree today. Literature sho ws that intervention of depression needs to be specialized in terms of the population it addresses. current groups, such as pueriles, respond to certain treatments differently when compared to another group, such as the elderly. (Aryan Alvidres, 2001 Von Kroff et al, 2001)Depression among the elderly has specifically been found to be rampant and mostly un check up on mainly due to the fact that it was regarded antecedent on as a normal step in an individuals aging. (Casey, 1994) The need for except research on the subject is stressed by the fact that treatments and solutions for depression among elderly individuals are analyze only in areas wherein a majority of the population is in the late stages of life. (Bramesfeld, 2003)Also, research has shown that general practitioners involved in treating depression in the elderly need to have more training and information on how best to handle depression in older patients. (Rothera et al, 2002) Diagnosis of depression is as well as a problem with 70-90% of depressed elderly patients going undiagnosed. (Koenig, 1999)A new strategy being researched for its effectiveness in treating depression employs the use of music techniques. Hendricks et al (1999) showed the potency of music in treating adolescent depression mainly because of its ability to inspire a change in the individuals emotions.Hanser Thomson (1994) and Hanser (1990) studies have likewise shown promise in the use of music techniques to treat depression in older individuals. This paper aims to validate these previous studies scarcely willing focus only on the musical aspect of the treatment. Previous research included exercise, ponderousness relaxation techniques, and recall of experiences which could have confounded the results of the previous studies attesting to the effectiveness of music techniques. query Question The close of this paper is to determine whether there is a operative relationship between music-induced affect and depression. Can positive affect induced by music reduce depression? It is hypothesized that positive music-induced affect has a signifi force outt negative relationship with depression.Methods The design of the study is experimental and random. Specifically, it makes use of a 22 between-subjects factorial design. one and only(a) vari subject will be the music-induced affect which will have two levels in the experiment, presence and absence of music-induced affect. Negative music-induced affect will not be used for ethical reasons. The other variable will be the test scores of the participants assessing the intensity of their depression. This will have two levels, test scores prior to the application of the music technique and test scores acquired after application. The two variables contribute tot eh 22 factorial design. (Mann, 1949)Setting The study will be conducted in a laboratory setting within primeval anxiety facilities from which the participants will be gathered. Performing the exper iment in a primary care facility will be more convenient especially because the participants involved are elderly individuals. The laboratory setting will control for confounding variables that could be present in a real environment. world The research sample will be composed of individuals from age 65 onwards coming from primary care facilities and who have been diagnosed with depression (ranging from mild to severe). This is to avoid ethical and scientific concerns regarding clinically-induced depression. entropy CollectionThe self-sufficient variable is the positive music-induced affect will be measured with the State Form of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List-Revised (MAACL-R). (Zuckerman Lubin, 1985) The depression level, the dependent variable, of the participants will be measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). (Beck et al, 1961)Participants will be randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group will be administered with music sessions aimed at indu cing positive affect. The music will be pre-tested on a different set of participants also with depression to check its validity in inducing positive affect. The control group will not be administered with music sessions and will only be administered the Beck Depression Inventory at the start and at the end of the experimentation period. The experimental group will be administered the selected music once daily for a duration of four weeks. During the sessions, participants of the experimental set-up will be asked to clear their minds and to concentrate only on the music being played. The State Form of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List-Revised will be administered to begin with and after each session to ensure that positive affect was induced. The Beck Depression Inventory will also be administered to this group at the start and end of the four-week experimentation period to document depression levels.Data Analysis Collected data will be analyzed statistically with the use of a unidirectional analysis of deviation (one-way ANOVA). The computed marginal means in the ANOVA will be the determining statistical value indicating the effect of positive music-induced affect on depression scores with the Beck Depression Inventory.Conclusion Music as a technique employed in treating depression will provide healthcare workers and low-income families with a relatively cost-free strategy of helping elderly individuals experiencing depression. This is also a technique that doesnt require more training or medical expertise in its administration. All one would need in set up to be able to administer this technique is knowledge as to which music selections are prescribed and prove to induce positive affect. This technique, because of its simplicity and speed of application, could also be used as a adjuvant strategy to medication, counseling and psychotherapies being employed to treat depression in elderly patients. The research, however, has many limitations. The ambit of elderly individuals that will be available for experimentation will only be confined to a specific locality. Time constraints will also be an issue. Further study should be conducted on a larger sample size and over a longer experimentation period. Different music styles and variations can also be checked to ascertain maximum effectiveness of the treatment. Gender could also be checked as a factor. Depression is indeed a psychological problem that afflicts todays elderly individuals. Research regarding effective techniques has to be continued and expanded in order for healthcare workers to be able to best address this growing problem.ReferencesArean, P., Alvidrez, J. (2001). Treating Depressive Disorders Who Responds, Who Does Not Respond, and Who Do We Need to Study? Journal of Family Practices, 50(6), 529Beck, A., Ward, C., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for amount depression, Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561-571.Bramesfeld, A. (2003). Service provision for elderly depressed persons and political and professional awareness for this subject a comparison of six European countries. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18, 392-401Casey, D. (1994). Depression in the elderly. southerly Medical Journal, 87(5), 559-563Hanser, S. B. (1990). A music therapy strategy for depressed older adults in the community. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 9, 283-298.Hanser, S. B., Thompson, L. W. (1994). cause of music therapy strategy on depressed older adults. Journal of Gerontology, 49, 265-269.Hendricks, C., Robinson, B., Bradley, L., Davis, K. (1999). Using music techniques to treat adolescent depression. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education Development, 38(1), 39-46Koenig, H. (1999). Late-life depression How to treat patients with comorbid chronic illness.Geriatrics, 54(5), 56-61Mann, H.B. (1949). Analysis and design of experiments analysis of variance and analysis of variance designs. New York, Dover Publicati ons.Rothera, I., Jones, R., Gordon, C. (2002). An examination of the attitudes and practice of general practitioners in the diagnosis and treatment of depression in older people. International Journal Of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17, 354-358Von Kroff, M., Katon, W., Wells, K., Wagner, E. (2001). Improving Depression Care Barriers, Solutions, and Research Needs. Journal of Family Practice, 50(6), 529-561Zuckerman M, Lubin B. (1985) Manual for the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List-Revised. San Diego Educational and Industrial Testing

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