Thursday, April 4, 2019
Assessment on English for Cambodian Textbook Uses
Assessment on face for Kampuchean text editionbook UsesThe f notwithstanding of the politico Pot regime in 1979 contri yeted to a new step toward introducing new foreign oral intercourses-Vietnamese, and Russian, in Kampuchean education system. How perpetu aloney, at the end of cold war in late 1989, French and side were reintroduced at 1 time again at glower secondary winding direct education after a long item of prohibition of education the two vocabularys toward the end of Lon Nol regime in 1975 (Igawa, 2008). Although French and slope turn in been taught ever since that time, English has become the first foreign dustup owing to the fact that there has been a teddy allocation of address resources from French to English (Clayton, 2006).Since English becomes more than and more influential language in Cambodia, high attention has been drawn to make this language more and more communicable among domesticate girls and boys at basic education take aim from anato my 7 to locate 12. Meanwhile, the main the purpose of Lower second-string School (LSS) is to have students fully charactericipate in the society and become a productive citizen. In this regard, the objective of breeding foreign language at that level is set to serve basic communicative competence for the students (MoYES, 2004).To serve the above objective, in Lower and speed irregularary school levels from identify 7 to gradation 12, MoEYS employs the book series named English for Cambodia to t to each one students, which was initially piloted in 1996-1997 academic year (MoEYS, 1999). onward the publication of English for Cambodia (EFC) series, many standard series such as Headway, English for Today, and streamline, to name but a few, were utilized to teach Kampuchean Secondary School students. Shortly after several projects had been conducted to amaze an appropriate English textual matter for Cambodia, EFC text series were promulgated with six levels in which one l evel is confined for the whole academic year of each grade at both Lower and Upper Secondary schools in Cambodia (Vira, 2002).In grade 7, students ar to take the first level of the book named English for Cambodia Book 1. The book is written in English including the explanatory part in the first section. The standard cloy is organized on the grammar basis containing a number of chapters which each is subdivided into 4 or 3 units to explain the position grammar, several(prenominal) drills using the grammar, short dialogues with inquires to check for cellular inclusion, and reading texts. From the capability, each chapter subsequently orientates students towards communicative goal (MoEYS, 1999).English for Cambodia, book one, was developed in forms of instructors guide and student book in watch over to MoEYS Textbook Master Plan (1996) and cooperated with Kampuchean seek institutions. This text edition was designed on the basis of MoEYS English Syllabus for grade 7 studen ts and accompanied by the educational activity methodology developed by teacher trainers during training course for Lower Secondary English trainees. In particular, the main features of program line methodology in this book is characterized as enhancing 4 language skill practices namely listening, speaking, reading, and writing practicing grammatical structure and dictionary and introducing systematic and appropriate representation of communicative language function various effective learn and instruction technique presented in each unit and regular interaction among students and teachers (MoEYS, 1999).1.2 Research Problem cardinal tables below show that teaching English is started at lower secondary school from grade 7. This means that from grade 1 to grade 6 Cambodian students who solely take primary education at state schools atomic number 18 not familiar with any of Basic English Alphabets.Table1 (Curriculum for grade 1-3)Table2 (Curriculum for grade 4-6)Table3 (Curricul um for grade 7-9)(MoEYS, 2004)On the new(prenominal) hand, from observation on teachers and students, the majority of them seem to be out of their interests in the culture and teaching English due to the fact that content of school text does not suit well with students language education ability. As demonstrated in three tables above, teaching foreign language begins in grade 7. However, the casebook that is apply for grade 7 students tends to be higher in language knowledgeability than in truth students language learning abilities atomic number 18. For instance, in the first chapter of ECF1 schoolbook, it begins with short dialogue and straight away realises students to introduce themselves to their friends in the classroom (English for Cambodia Book1, chpt 1). This significantly drives grade 7 students attention away from learning English at school. capital of Minnesota Morris suggested that the best criteria for content selection shall respect to learners ability. Howev er, this criterion is not c atomic number 18fully considered (Morris, 1996).Particularly, Cunningsworth (1995) proposed that best criteria for selecting a intelligent casebook is to prove if the standard content responds to learners contends and also the objective of language program (Cited in Richards, 2001). In this regard, there comes the question, Does English for Cambodia book 1 fit well with and correspond to grade 7 students needs and their learning abilities?1.3 Objectives of the Study (Research objectives)To refine the watercourse EFC textbook content, this study aims at evaluating both strengths and weaknesses of the be textbook and shed light on how to improve the textbook contents by employing some theories of textbook evaluation from previous(prenominal) studies a spacious to build up logical frameworks for the seek determinations.Moreover, this study leave unlikeiate textbook content utilize in Cambodian lower secondary school to some other English textbo oks utilized in some other reclusive institutions-whether the textbooks contain the element of communicative language teaching objective set by the Cambodian Ministry of Education. In this regard, the refined qualities of textbook can be developed to support grade 7 students who learn English to improve their language performance in Cambodian high schools.1.4 Research QuestionsWhat argon the strengths and weaknesses of EFC 1 textbook perceived by teachers and students in grade 7 English classes?Are there any significant differences of English textbook content use in Cambodian secondary school and those used in private schools?1.5 HypothesesStrengths and weaknesses of EFC 1 textbook are perceived by teachers and students in grade 7 English classes.There are significant differences of English textbook contents used in Cambodian secondary school and those used in private schools.1.6 Significance of the StudyThis study forget contribute to establishing guidepost for grade 7 textboo k reexamine aiming at enhancing qualities of the existing EFC textbook series. This study allow for serve as a tool to assuage grade 7 students with appropriate learning English as second language materials at Cambodian lower secondary school. The result from this study forget offer recommendation to curriculum developer to reconsider the current textbook content in the view to making it relevant to the Cambodian grade 7 students and disciple to command objectives of foreign language teaching curriculum set by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports in Cambodia.1.7 Definition of chance upon TermsThe assessment on EFC1 textbook impart be done through examining the midland features and outside(a) features of the book. The term internal features refer to physical appearance, layout, pictures, and printing look, while outside(a) features specify the language contents and skill development of the book.1.8 Proposed Chapter OrganizationThis research study is organized in f ive chapters. Chapter 1 is introduction dealing with background information of the study, problem statement, research objective, research question, significance of the study, and proposed chapter organization.Chapter 2 is writings reexamine which makes use of many studies oversea to construct a logical framework for textbook evaluation. This review of literature will lead to geomorphologic features of textbook evaluation consisting of internal and extraneous features, and draw up some characteristics to achieve the goal of communicative language teaching.Chapter 3 is research methodology which deal with research design, instruments for entropy collection, setting, data collection procedures, plan for data analysis, ethical shapes, and limitation of the study.Chapter 4, finding and discussion, will present the findings associate to the strengths and weaknesses of EFC1 textbook, and pose recommendation for textbook review to make it an appropriate material for grade 7 students i n Cambodian lower secondary school.Chapter 5 is conclusion.CHAPTER 2LITERATURE REVIEWSince there are throttle previous studies concerning textbook evaluation in Cambodian context, this study will base largely on related studies oversea to draw the theoretical framework to textbook assessment. And the review of literature begins with the description of general features of textbook evaluation, and is followed by textbook content evaluation for communicative purposes, related study in EFC textbook evaluation, and finally conclusion.2.1 General Feature of Textbook Design EvaluationTextbooks are teaching materials generally used in many teaching programs. In fix up to measure the strengths and weaknesses of any textbooks used in Second Language Teaching program many criteria have been set to carry out the framework of evaluation. In 1982, David William in his position as Senior Lecturer and the head of Language Art Section at Ahmadu Bello Unversity of Nigeria proposed the evaluative sc heme through his work Developing Criteria for Textbook Evaluation. His evaluative scheme is base on four criteria namely linguistic, pedagogical, general, and technical principles. These principles provide up-to-date teaching methodology to teachers, especially those whose native languages are not English, to benefit from appropriate guidelines introduced by a particularly chosen textbook. Moreover, the needs of second language learners shall be carefully considered especially when pupils in the same class have many unlike backgrounds of English capacity. Whats more, introducing vocabulary and grammar shall be conducted in respect to students socio-cultural norms so as to relate students native language with the introduced target language. As the result of these principles, David William suggested a checklist in which ESL textbook should be included such as guideline for teaching language items and skills, supplementary materials for pronunciation, provision of variable techniques for teaching grammar and vocabulary, guideline for teaching reading comprehension and writing, and technical aspects of language presentation textbook should have such as appropriate pictures, diagrams, table (William, 1983)Cunningworth (1995), on the other hand, proposed four criteria for textbook evaluation. First, textbook should correspond to the need of learners and fit well with the aims and objectives of the programs. Secondly, textbook shall radiation diagram students learning purposes for effective language learning outcome. Thirdly, they should facilitate students with learning process, hence increasing a unassailable flow of learning-teaching activities. Fourth, textbooks should serve as a supporting tool to accommodate students learning and target language. In addition, Cunningsworth also recommended a checklist for textbook evaluation which bases on 9 categories aims and approaches, design and organization, language content, skills, exit, methodology, teachers guide, and practical consideration (Cited in Richards, 2001).Another systematic evaluation proposed by Byrd (2000) also recommended practical textbook analysis in the first place putting it into use for English class. He addressed the three fits that can be the keys to assessing an effective textbook use in general the Fit mingled with curriculum and text, the Fit between students and text, and the Fit between teacher and text. The first fit analyzed the consistency between curriculum set and materials used in order to reach the commonly achievable goals. The second fit served as a link between students needs and textbook. For this purpose, textbook should combine three key elements including content explanation, examples, and exercise or tasks. The three keys should be of students interest and use, of appropriateness to target students to be explained, and of help in explaining to them about what they need to know in order to learn. More, different kinds of students should get benefit from varied activities the book presents in order to meet their aver needs. And of course, to enhance the three key elements textbook should employ physical make up including graphics, arts, print size, as well as attractive illustration. Last but not least, the third fit provides benefit to teachers in which he/she can make use the teaching textbook to help them solve problem related to teaching language within their classrooms. From the textbook teachers should be equipped with guidelines, extra materials, activities, and methods to extend their language teaching in their assigned classroom (cited in Celce-Murcia, 2001).Although no textbook is perfect in language teaching class, there are general characteristics of textbook that can be used as format for textbook reviews. In a journal article by Hansan Asary and Esmat (2002), they drew up universal features of textbook analysis by selecting 10 ESL/EFL textbook evaluation schemes and 10 ESL/EFL reviews as collections to develop t heir study. From their analysis, the authors come up with universal characteristics of EFL/ESL textbooks which are outlined as 1) approach which is related to theory of nature of language and learning 2) content presentation referring to purpose and objective as well as sequences of presentation and consideration on students part as well as teaching syllabus 3) physical make-up which refers to the appropriate layout, pictures, and publishing quality and 4) administrative concern which involves cultural and social aspects of the texts (Ansary Babii, 2002).To assess the quality of textbook of grade 6 English Language class in Saudi Arabia, Abdulrahman Ali M. Alamri (2008) conducted one research study to evaluate the newly published textbook, named Sixth Grade English Language, which was used in Saudi Boys Schools. The selected criteria to evaluate the textbook in question was similar to what have been mentioned in the above theories of textbook evaluation including the general appear ance, design and illustration, accompanying materials, objectives, topic appropriateness, learning components, socio-cultural contexts, skills development, teachability, flexibility, teaching methods, and practice and testing. The result from this study showed that Sixth Grade English Language Text really satisfied all 104 participants, but there were some comments suggested by the author in order to improve quality of textbook include adding appropriate glossary to facilitate teachers and learners, incorporating attractive illustration to assist more creativity, encouraging more critical thinking through interesting topics, introducing more veritable(a) themes to get students more active in class, including career-like interaction to encourage more flexibility of language practices, and finally providing more effective teaching methods that make students more communicative in class (Abdulrhman, 2008).2.2 Textbook Content for communicatory GoalsIn general principle, Communicative Language Teaching consists of two key components. The first component is based on the idea that language is not solely pieces of grammars, but is involved with language functions. Therefore, students should learn how to use language appropriately in a context of (formal, informal, tentative, technical) writing and speaking. Second component stems from the idea that learning language can take place only if students have adequate chance to expose to language use (Compiled by Rath Hok, 2002). In this regard, textbook shall integrate skill development, language function, and appropriate topic for authentic language use (Cunningsworth, 1995 Sharma, 2005 Madhi, 2006 Abdulranhman, 2008)To assess if textbooks serve as communicative language teaching tools in younger high school of Japan, one research study conducted in Japan by Bal Krishna Sharma (2005) attempted to analyze textbooks series used in Nipponese junior high school on two broad criteria physical feature and internal feature. From internal feature, Bal Krishna Sharma posted criticism on textbook design for Japanese junior high school that the textbook emphasized more on grammar, hence lacking of communication skills, various tasks and activities (Sharma, 2005).Similarly, in order for the textbook content become more communicative in lower secondary school, textbook content shall emphasize more on communicative social function of language alternatively than more on structural methods. In a research report conducted in 2006 by Mahdi Dahmardeh in an effort to expand the constructive change in communicative textbook design in Iranian Lower Secondary school and to carter for teachers and students needs and expectation, he analyzed the current textbook use in Iran by categorizing it into 7 aspects teaching vocabulary, reading comprehension, speaking out and write it down, language function, pronunciation practice, teaching listening and writing, and teaching culture. From these categories the author found th at Iranian textbook design for lower secondary school cannot meet learners and teachers needs owing to the fact that the textbook still emphasized more on structural methods and ignored communicative roles of language (Madhi, 2006).Social cultural aspect of language also plays important role in extending the authentic language function. In Cunningsworth checklist of textbook evaluation, topic selection for textbook design shall be various to expand students awareness and experiences, meet the students language level, and represent the socio-cultural context which related to students way of life (cited in Richards, 2001). Moreover, Abdulranhman (2008) also stressed the importance of socio-cultural aspect which is familiar by students. Students are likely to tincture positive attitude with the language they learn. In this case the term lingua franca starts to take its effect in teaching language, which means that language is adopted widely to make its communicable among the speakers whose native languages are different from each other. It is, therefore, concluded that foreign language taught in a particular country shall insure its strain to make it learnable and teachable.2.3 EFC textbook evaluation in Cambodian Secondary SchoolThough there have not been many studies concerning Cambodian textbook evaluation, Neau Vira (2002) conducted his study on English Language Teaching in Cambodian Secondary school in his effort to seek significant domain in renovating prosperous teaching profession. However, one section of his study covered EFC textbook evaluation which he sought the set to the quality of EFC textbook through questionnaire, and in-person interview. 39 participants were selected to express their judgments on the currently used textbook quality. Surprisingly, all the respondents expressed their satisfaction on the EFC textbook because this textbook series was interesting, appropriate to students levels, relevant to Cambodian daily lives, and various in a ctivities for students to practice in their class (Vira, 2002).2.4 Theoretical FrameworkFrom frameworks found in the above articles, it can be concluded that two broad criteria should be categorized to measure the strengths and weaknesses of EFC textbooks external features and internal features. External features refer specifically to physical make-up of textbook including font size, layout, quality of printing, exercising weight and size, and illustration. On the other hand, internal features take at a lower placelying teaching approach and language content into consideration. The latter(prenominal) features examine the language skills, presentation of grammar and vocabulary, language function, teachable language activities, teaching methods and objectives, and topic appropriateness.Moreover, the previous finding concerning EFC Textbook evaluation cannot cover broad array of textbook evaluation criteria mentioned above. Therefore, further study need to be analyzed to assure more valid result.CHAPTER 3METHODOLOGY3.1 Research DesignTo upon) general informations of teachers and students on the strengths and weaknesses of EFC textbook, as well as comparing EFC textbook content with those of textbooks used in private language school, this study will use quantitative method. Since the purpose of this study intends to assess the perception of students and teachers on strengths and weaknesses of textbook contents in question, this type of research is classified as survey research (Gay, Geoffrey, Peter, 2009). In this regard, a number of teachers and students will be allowed to voice their personal judgment on the targeted areas of textbook qualities the study focuses on.3.2 Research InstrumentThis research study will employ checklists of textbook evaluation from previous studies. These checklists are incorporated into a single questionnaire which categorized into 2 major areas of textbook evaluation internal and external qualities.In external quality evaluation, 7 items of statements will be included to measure general appearance of textbook design such as quality of cover page, pictures, table of contents, layout, and printing. Anyway, to assess external quality, 20 items of statements under the internal quality are used to get general perceptions of teachers and students on textbooks aims and objectives, content organization, language content, skills, topics, and teaching methodology.All items in questionnaire are organized in Likert-like scale in which all participants are to respond to a number of statements on scale values ranking from 1) strongly agree, 2) disagree, 3) agree, and 4) strongly agree.In addition, to ensure clear content of questions and to be easily doable by participants, questionnaire needs to be translated into Khmer to suit grade 7 students learning competence, while teacher can answer the questionnaire with their own selection in Khmer or in English version.Moreover, pilot testing needs to be carried out one mon th before the real survey begins to guarantee the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. From this pilot testing, it can help improve questionnaire contents and its prospective score results.3.3 Population and SampleSite of this study is small, which cover only on the target area of Phnom Penh where a number of both state and private schools are located. Questionnaire will be used as a survey to get personal judgment from target universe of 60 Grade 7 students and 40 teachers of English who teach them in 10 different secondary schools. Other 20 teachers from 5 different private language schools will be also invited to answer the questions related to the features of beginner textbook content used in their institutions.The sampling design for this population follows assemble procedure in which 60 students and 40 teachers will be randomly selected from 10 secondary schools where EFC1 textbooks are used in Phnom Penh, and 5 private language schools where their particularly cho sen textbooks are used. First among each 10 secondary schools, all number of grade 7 classes are selected. Then only 2 or 3 classes will be selected for the questionnaire participation. Teachers who teach in those classes are asked for answering the questionnaires. Meanwhile, around 6 to 10 students of those teachers classes are also selected to answer the questionnaires.For private language schools, all number of beginner classes are selected. Then only 1 or 2 teachers who teach beginner classes are requested for their participation.3.4 comment of Variables Derived from the Research ToolsEFC textbook content is judged through the teachers and students perception with questionnaires. The participants involved will rate a series of statements in scale value ranking from number one (the well-nigh disagree) to number four (the most agree).To seek the answer to the first question of this research, students and teachers perception on strengths and weakness of textbook contents are asse ssed with each statement in the questionnaire. Item 1 to 7 under external quality section are used to evaluate the overall textbook appearances, while item 1 to 20 under internal quality section are used to evaluate textbook content organization, language content, skills, topics, and teaching methodology.To find the differences of textbook contents employed by some private schools and those used in Cambodian secondary school, the answers from questionnaires that will have been given by all participants are compared and contrasted to discover commonalities and differences of all textbook contents being assessed.Therefore, from the survey, if higher percentage of participants rate on the higher scale of each statement, this will tell that textbook contents being assessed have their strengths. In contrast, if higher percentage of participants rate on the lower scale, it will interpret that textbook contents have their weaknesses.3.5 data Collection ProcedureIn order to have access to the target population, authorization need to be sought from school principles for a number of available grade 7 teachers and students at each school. After having accessibility to the school, all grade 7 classes will be selected. But we need to limit the number of students to get involved in answering the questionnaires. This means that only roughly 2 to 3 students that represent the whole class will be chosen to answer the questions.Meanwhile, to assess the qualities of textbook used in private language schools, permission is also sought for one beginner teacher from several private schools. This means that 5 different textbooks from 5 different private schools will be assessed.Additionally, the detail explanation needs to be make at the target areas just in case the participants have any misunderstanding over the questions. We will keep doing with this procedure until 25 target participants can be assessed.3.6 Plan for Data AnalysisData analysis is conducted in the follow stepsFi rst step collect all answers from the participants involved in answering the distributed questionnaires.Second step analyze respondents answers if their answer is bias or non-bias on the ground of textbook contents.Third step prepare for data entryFourth step the data will be analyzed using SPSS to see the percentage of respondents who agree or disagree on the EFC 1 textbook design quality.Fifth step present the result and discussion.3.7 Ethical ConsiderationAll participants will be informed in advance that schools, teachers, and students names will not be revealed to ensure validity and reliability of their answers. Before conducting the survey, the participants need to be ascertained that their answers do not harmfully affects their current teaching careers, their school reputations, or students learning process. The participants should be clearly informed that their answers will be kept confidential and will not be used for other purposes. All data collected will be used for the purpose of this research finding only. Moreover, their contribution of answers will be worthwhile to the development of effective teaching materials for beginner language learners.3.8 LimitationThis study will target at the population in Phnom Penh where all selected private language schools and public high school are located. With time and financial limit this research can not reach the target population in the rural area, hence having difficulty acquire the answer that represent the whole country demand for EFC 1 textbook evaluation as needed.