Saturday, March 9, 2019

Ovarian Cancer Research Paper Essay

Introductionovarian pubic lo enforce is matchless of the close to(prenominal) special K types of burncer among women. It is considered to be one of the roughly common types of apprisecer of the young-bearing(prenominal) reproductive arrangement. According to McGuire and Markman (2003), despite advances in treatment everywhere the last 40 years, ovarian malignant neoplastic disease is the second most usually diagnosed gynaecological malignancy, and causes much deaths than any some a nonher(prenominal)(a) basiscer of the reproductive system (p. 4). Despite the circumstance that ovarian malignant neoplastic disease occurs less frequently than uterine pottycer, it is more hostile and potful occur at any age. In addition, it does not manifest itself in the first stages, and in most cases atomic number 18 diagnosed lonesome(prenominal) in the afterwards ones. All the malignant ovarian neoplasms ar subdivided into epithelial, germ or stromal cell types ( pubic lous e). These cancers assimilate the highest incidence among all other neoplasms. (Jordan, S., Green, A., & Webb, P. 2006 p.109-116).Signs and symptoms of ovarian cancerOvarian cancer has frequently been called the silent orca whale because symptoms ar not thought to develop until mod stages when chance of resume is poor (Goff, Mandel, Melancon, & Muntz, 2004, p. 2705). That is why the symptoms of ovarian cancer argon not particular(prenominal) and can be disguised as other more common diseases, such as diseases of the digestive system or urinary system. The indicate for the lack of cl un well-timed(a) defined symptoms is that ovarian cancer develops in the type AB cavity and does not cause excitation for the patient. The briny sign of the bearing of most disease is a constant presence of symptoms or their worsening. For example, ovarian cancer symptoms be distinguished by their immutability of the manifestations they progress gradually. (Goff, B. A., Mandel, L. S., Melancon, C. H., Muntz, H. G., 2004 p. 2705-2712). The main symptoms of ovarian cancer may include the following1. Feeling of overeating, hump or bloating2. Urgent essential to urinate3. Pain or discomfort in the pelvic area.4. Constant indigestion or nausea5. Sudden, undetermined changes of s excessivelyls, which include diarrhea or constipation6. Frequent urination7. inclination loss8. Rapid system of weights loss or rapid weight gain9. Increased waist circumference, which can be seen by the feature that the clo social function suddenly became base 10. Pain during intercourse11. Permanent failing12. Pain in the lumbar area, abdominal pain. The growing tumor extends by dint of the fallopian tubes, causing the lower abdominal pain on the affected side. The lifesize tumors can compress the large intestine that is manifested in bloating or constipation. (Goff, B. A., Mandel, L. S., Melancon, C. H., Muntz, H. G., 2004, p. 2705-2712). In addition, ovarian cancer is characterized by met astases at the gate of the liver that snuff its to the ontogenesis of ascites an accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity due to the crunch of the hepatic portal vein. (Goff, B. A., Mandel, L. S., Melancon, C. H., Muntz, H. G., 2004, p. 2705-2712). The later stages (3 and 4) of ovarian cancer are characterized by more severe symptoms, such as intoxication and anemia. The doctors usually can diagnose ovarian cancer for three months after the first symptoms. However, sometimes it is necessary to wait for six months or however more in order to put the final diagnosis. (Goff, B. A., Mandel, L. S., Melancon, C. H., Muntz, H. G., 2004, p. 2705-2712).Causes of ovarian cancerCurrently, the etiological factors of malignant ovarian tumors are not significantly determined. However, some researches guide advanced several hypotheses ab let on the etiology of epithelial ovarian tumors (Modugno et al., 2003, p. 439- 446). The first one being that ovarian cancer usually occurs when a tumo r develops in one or two of a womans ovaries. (Modugno et al., 2003, p. 439- 446). other hypothesis is based on the concept of incessant ovulation (early menarche, late menopause, a small number of pregnancies, the shortening of lactation).Remember, the constant ovulations cause earnest disablement to epithelial inclusions in the ovarian cortex. The following hypothesis shows that ovarian cancer, most often, is caused by the glandular epithelial cells, which produce hormones. Therefore, a violation of hormonal regulation leads to the changes of malignant epithelial cells. Ovarian cancer often develops in the presence of chronic inflammation, benign tumors or ovarian cysts. (Jordan, S., Green, A., & Webb, P., 2006, p. 109-116). fortune factorsIt is demanding enough to determine the venture factors for ovarian cancer. However, it is believed that the healthy women, who pretend relatives diagnosed with bosom cancer, ovarian cancer or uterine cancer, are at encounter of those diseases. Supporting this point of view, Cannistra (2004) states that a strong family history of ovarian or breast cancer is the most crucial risk factor for women. as well as often ovarian cancer develops after menopause. However, the risk is increase only after 60 years. In turn, Cannistra (2004) supports this information and adds that the median age of patients with ovarian cancer is 60 years, and the average lifetime risk for women is about 1 in 70. (p. 2519-2522)Despite the fact that most ovarian cancers are diagnosed in postmenopausal women, the disease can overly occur in women who are in the premenopausal period. Women, who take a crap a bun in the oven been pregnant at to the lowest degree once, are less likely to have ovarian cancer. The use of extradite control pills also reduces this probability. (Kuper, H., Cramer, D. W., & Titus-Ernstoff, L., 2002., p. 455-463). The appearance of cysts is a normal process that occurs during ovulation in women who are premenopau sal. However, cysts formed in the postmenopausal period have a great chance to cause cancer. Women are at increased risk if they are having trouble conceiving. Environment factors also affect the incidence of ovarian cancer. (Kuper, H., Cramer, D. W., & Titus-Ernstoff, L., 2002., p. 455-463).Ovarian cancer can be primary, secondary and metastatic. The malignant tumors, which chiefly affect the ovary, are known as primary cancer. Secondary ovarian cancer (cystadenocarcinoma) occurs due to the benign or borderline tumors. Metastatic ovarian cancer (Krukenberg tumor) is a spreading of the primary tumor, which is often located in the gastro- enteral tract, stomach, breast, thyroid or womb. (Rossing, M. A., Tang, M. C., Flagg, E. W., Weiss, L. K., Wicklund, K. G., & Weiss, N. S.,2006, p. 713-720).Ovarian cancer stagingIt is possible to intimation the following ovarian cancer stages, such as act 1 limited to one or some(prenominal) ovaries 1A) cone ovary is affected, no ascites 1B) b oth ovaries are affected, no ascites 1C) appearance of the tumor on the surface of the ovary (s), ascites.Stage 2 disease spreads in the small pelvis 2A) affection of the uterus or fallopian tubes 2B) affection of other tissues of the small pelvis 2C) tumor on the surface of the ovary (s), ascites.Stage 3 affection of the peritoneum, metastases in the liver and other organs within the abdomen, affection of mol lymph nodes 3A) microscopic peritoneal metastasis beyond the pelvis 3B) metastasis less than 2 cm in size 3C) metastases more than 2 cm in diameter, involving retroperitoneal and inguinal lymph nodes. Stage 4 opposed metastases. (Rossing, M. A., Tang, M. C., Flagg, E. W., Weiss, L. K., Wicklund, K. G., & Weiss, N. S., 2006., p. 713-720). Thus, these are the basic ovarian cancer stages, which help to find out how widespread ovarian cancer is. Classification of ovarian tumors1) Surface epithelial-stromal tumors the largest host of benign epithelial ovarian tumors are c ystadenoma. 2) Sex cord-stromal tumors with a nominal number of elements have the structure of elicit cord-tech fibroids and may contain small nests or tubules of sex cord-type cells. 3) Germ cell tumors are teratomas, which in most cases are benign. . (Rossing, M. A., Tang, M. C., Flagg, E. W., Weiss, L. K., Wicklund, K. G., & Weiss, N. S., 2006., p. 713-720). Ovarian cancer treatmentOvarian cancer can be suspected by a gynecologist during a standard pelvic exam. However, much of the problem is that ovarian cancer is often spy too late. Not everyone has symptoms, and the classic onesbloating, pelvic pain, difficulty eating and urinary frequency, are easily confused with other maladies (Johannes, 2010, para. 6). That is why the doctor should on a regular basis check the pelvis and conduct the palpation of the uterus, vagina, tubes, ovaries, bladder, and rectum. In addition, it is essential to use a pelvic organ ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radionuclide studies (scintigraphy), intestinal endoscopy, as well as a laparoscopic scrutiny of the pelvis with a biopsy. (Zhang, M., Xie, X., Lee, A. H., & Binns, C. W., 2004, p. 83-89). Remember that ovarian cancer does not have any straightforward symptoms in the early stages. Therefore, the annual gynecological examination and ultrasonography of the groin area are very important. Main treatment usually involves surgery, chemotherapy, and sometimes radiotherapy.Depending on the extent of tumor spread, surgery can be performed in various capacities. The obtained material must be sent for further examination. If the tumor significantly extends, the doctor should conduct the courses of chemotherapy, and then perform surgery. Mainly, surgery is performed in a radical way the uterus with the tubes, pelvic tissue with lymph nodes, and omentum in the form of an apron are removed only. Gland contains lymph nodes, which are often affected by metastases. Ovarian cancer has the ability to affect a healthy o vary through the cross metastases. (Rossing, M. A., Tang, M. C., Flagg, E. W., Weiss, L. K., Wicklund, K. G., & Weiss, N. S., 2006., p. 713-720). Therefore, it is very important to remove both ovaries in order to preserve the life of the patient. Taking into consideration the aggressive nature of the disease, chemotherapy is considered to be a required component of ovarian cancer treatment.The standard chemotherapy protocol consists of two major drugs, such as Carboplatin and Taxol. (Kiani, F., Knutsen, S., Singh, P., Ursin, G., & Fraser, G., 2006, p. 137-146). medicine duration, dosage and additive drugs are determined individually in consistency with the type of tumor, the degree of spreading and other indicators. It is possible to conduct the additional courses of chemotherapy after surgery. Ovarian cancer treatment has its specific nature. It is connected with the fact that the tumor in the ovary cannot be seen. Therefore, in cases when the doctor does not wage the patient, the only way to be sure that the tumor is gone completely is use a high-dose chemotherapy. The main features of chemotherapy for ovarian cancerChemotherapy is performed in almost all the stages of the disease.Sometimes it is used to fight against the tumor, sometimes to contain the tumor and prevent its spreading, sometimes in order to delay the radical defeat of the body. In any case, chemotherapy for ovarian cancer is proved as an effective fighting method. Chemotherapy does serious damage to the body, notwithstanding its main usefulness is that the drugs work in the body, and thus blocks the development of the last stage of cancer, as well as the spreading to adjacent organs. Chemotherapy for ovarian cancer has a greater chance of success than radiotherapy, because it comes to the heart of the problem.The most important thing is that chemotherapy can get rid of cancer cells, which have already started to progress, merely have not yet appeared in the specific symptoms. In othe r words, it can nip with the problem in the bud. Thus, if the use of chemotherapy for ovarian cancer is offered, do not refuse to do it. This is one of the few chances that could take over your life, and give a reason to hope for the restoration of a normal life and future. In some cases, in addition to chemotherapy, the doctor can prescribe radiotherapy in order to kill the cancer cells. However, it is not commonly used and does not play an important role in the treatment of ovarian cancer. How to prevent the development of ovarian cancer? either woman should know her vulnerabilities loopholes through which cancer can penetrate into the body. Loophole 1 Late arrival to the gynecologistThe annual preventive gynecological examination is required for all the women. Women, who have ovarian cancer, address to the doctor too late. This is due to the irregular visits to the gynecologist, because of this the initial stages of the disease go unnoticed. At first, cancer progresses usually without any of the characteristic symptoms. Subsequently, women can suffer from uterine bleeding, that doesnt usually coincide with the period of menstruation and often ignore the abnormality. (Grilli, R., Apolone, G., Marsoni, S., Nicolucci, A., Zola, P., & Liberati, A., 1991, p.50-63). Women need to understand that the existence of such a symptom is a serious cause for concern, because any vaginal bleeding aside from the normal monthly menstruation may indicate a malfunction in the body. some other characteristic which women often ignore is lower abdominal pain. These pains can be short or long, weak, or strong.However, it is not desirable to promptly take analgesics to numb the unpleasant feelings. In such a case, it willing be more reasonable to see a gynecologist. In addition, it is important to conduct an ultrasound of the uterus and ovaries. Usually a pelvic examination and ultrasound can detect ovarian cancer at the early stages. (Titus-Ernstoff, L., Rees, J. R., Terry, K . L., & Cramer, D. W., 2010, p. 201-207). The growth of ovarian tumors may be accompanied by inferior temperature, shivering, and weakness. If you do not have an infectious disease and severe pain, but constant weakness and nausea, it is essential to consult with a gynecologist. (Titus-Ernstoff, L., Rees, J. R., Terry, K. L., & Cramer, D. W., 2010, p. 201-207).Loophole 2 Changes in hormonal balanceMany women going through menopause also experience profound changes in the level of sex hormones. An excess of distaff hormones can lead to ovarian tumors and other serious gynecological diseases (Jordan, S. J., Purdie, D. M., Green, A. C., & Webb, P. M., 2004, p.359-365). The patients, who have had surgery on the uterus and ovaries, are also at increased risk. In addition to various infectious complications, they can also have a hormonal disorder. One of the reasons for ovarian cancer is an excess of sex hormone called gonadotropin, which leads to the development of other hormone-depend ent tumors. (Jordan, S. J., Purdie, D. M., Green, A. C., & Webb, P. M., 2004, p.359-365).Therefore, women with hormonal malfunctions should be evaluated by a gynecologist with special attention. Loophole 3 Change of sexual partners and childlessness Sexual sleeping around often leads to frequent abortions. Every abortion is a serious hormonal disruption of the whole female body. The consequences of abortion are infertility, chronic diseases of the uterus and other reproductive organs. Sexual promiscuity can also lead to various infectious diseases of the genital organs. Some of these diseases often increase the risk of ovarian cancer. Nulliparous women suffer from ovarian cancer more often than those who have children. (King, M., Marks, J. H., Mandell, J. B., 2003, p. 643-646).Loophole 4 Unhealthy lifestylesIt is known that women, who smoke or drink alcoholic beverage, are much more susceptible to ovarian cancer. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption weaken their health and the refore they have a high risk of cancer. In recent years, it is possible to trace the appearance of polar cosmetics and dietary supplements. They contain the hormonal stimulants, which are very harmful for the female body (Kiani, F., Knutsen, S., Singh, P., Ursin, G., & Fraser, G., 2006, p.137-146). It is necessary to carefully use such stimulants. Before winning these pills, it is essential to consult your primary care physician or gynecologist. Women, who have menopause, should eat a balanced diet full of vitamins and other nutrients (Kiani, F., Knutsen, S., Singh, P., Ursin, G., & Fraser, G., 2006, p.137-146). Furthermore, personal hygiene is vital to good health. Remember that any chronic diseases, specially concerning the sexual organs, weaken the immune system and increases the risk of tumor development.However, if diagnosed as having ovarian cancer dont give up. Remember that timely access to a physician is the key to success. Tumors can be detect by the usual examination and then refined with the help of the ultrasound and analysis. If the disease is detected in an early stage, treatment will be more effective. In such a case, the doctor has the ability to link up surgical and medical treatment, without affecting the uterus and ovaries. Such patients can even get pregnant and give birth to a healthy baby. The later stages of ovarian cancer are characterized by more severe symptoms and can even lead to the complete removal of the ovaries, uterus and other organs affected by the tumor. Unfortunately, the survival rate of these patients is very low, and they often have relapse (McGuire, W.P., & Markman, M. (2003).ConclusionTaking the above-mentioned information into consideration, it is possible to drag on a conclusion that ovarian cancer is often called the silent killer because clinically the first manifestations are associated with the spread of the tumor outside the ovary, and sometimes beyond the pelvis. Ovarian cancer can be divided into the fo llowing forms, such as primary, secondary, and metastatic. The most common symptoms for ovarian cancer are pain in the abdomen and lower back, accompanied with abdominal distension and ascites. However, these symptoms are typical for a number of benign ovarian tumors. functional treatment of ovarian cancer is considered to be the fundamental. The prevention of ovarian cancer is possible through the regular preventive examinations.ReferencesCannistra, S.A. (2004). malignant neoplastic disease of the ovary. N. Engl. J. Med., 351 (24), 2519-29. doi 10.1056/NEJMra041842 Goff, B. A., Mandel, L. S., Melancon, C. H., Muntz, H. G. (2004). oftenness of Symptoms of Ovarian crabmeat in Women Presenting to Primary Care Clinics. American aesculapian Association, 291 (22), 2705-2712. Grilli, R., Apolone, G., Marsoni, S., Nicolucci, A., Zola, P., & Liberati, A. (1991). The Impact of Patient Management Guidelines on the Care of Breast, Colorectal, and Ovarian crabby person Patients in Italy. Medical Care, 29 (1), 50-63. Johannes, L. (2010, March 9). Test to Help view If Ovarian Masses Are Cancer. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http//online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704869304575109703066893506.html Jordan, S., Green, A., & Webb, P. (2006). favorable Epithelial Ovarian Tumours Cancer Precursors or Markers for Ovarian Cancer hazard? Cancer Causes & Control, 17 (5), 623-632. Jordan, S. J., Purdie, D. M., Green, A. C., & Webb, P. M. (2004). Coffee, Tea and Caffeine and Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer. Cancer Causes & Control, 15 (4), 359-365. Jordan, S. J., Siskind, V., Green, A. C., Whiteman, D. C., & Webb, P. M. (2010). Breastfeeding and Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer. Cancer Causes & Control, 21 (1), 109-116. Kiani, F., Knutsen, S., Singh, P., Ursin, G., & Fraser, G. (2006). Dietary Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer The Adventist Health Study (United States). Cancer Causes & Control, 17 (2), 137-146. King, M., Marks, J. H., Mandell, J. B. (2003). Brea st and Ovarian Cancer Risks Due to Inherited Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. The New York Breast Cancer Study Group Science, New Series, 302 (5645), 643-646. Kuper, H., Cramer, D. W., & Titus-Ernstoff, L. (2002). Risk of Ovarian Cancer in the United States in Relation to anthropometric Measures Does the Association Depend on Menopausal Status? Cancer Causes & Control, 13 (5), 455-463. McGuire, W.P., & Markman, M. (2003). Primary ovarian cancer chemotherapy current standards of care. Br. J. Cancer, 89 (3), 3-8. doi10.1038/sj.bjc.6601494. Modugno, F., Moslehi, R., Ness, R. B., Nelson, D. B., Bell, S., Kant, J. A., Wheeler, J. E., Fishman, D., Karlan, B., Risch, J., Cramer, D. W., Dube, M., & Narod, S. A. (2003). generative factors and ovarian cancer risk in Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (United States). Cancer Cause and Control, 14, 439-446. Rossing, M. A., Tang, M. C., Flagg, E. W., Weiss, L. K., Wicklund,

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