Â· Management as knowledge Â· Management as contrivance As a Science Science has been defined as a form of systematised knowledge, which workes a relationship between bring on and effect. Such systematised knowledge contains concepts, hypotheses, theories, experimentation and principles. unmingled knowledge or collection of facts is not science. The knowledge so gathered should be verifiable. A subject to be accept as a science should book the followers features: i. It should have a dogmatic body of knowledge. ii. It should have a scientific method for observation. iii. Its principles should have been evolved on the basis of continued observation. iv. Its principles should have universal applicability. v. Its principles should be verifiable. vi. Its principles should establish cause and effect relationship. Now prudence has been disposed the excogitate of an organized body of knowledge. Its study helps in gaining a rational approach to the tuition of means for accomplishing certain goals. That is wherefore, management is called a Science. Although management has been recognized as a science, it is not exact like the biological and physical sciences. It falls in the area of Social Science as it is a neighborly process and deals with complex human beings.
The theories and principles of management are moorage bound. It may produce different results in different situations. That is why Ernest Dale has called management a Soft Science. As an graphics Art may be defined as the growth of applying the principles to actual practice so as to achieve the urgency results with efficiency. It is rel! ate with the application of knowledge and skills. If science is learnt, an wile is practiced. Thus, an art has the following features: i. It demotes personal skills. ii. It signifies practical knowledge. iii. It helps in achieving concrete results. iv. It is fanciful in nature. The principles and techniques of management when applied in the organization to...If you want to get a full essay, order it on our website: OrderCustomPaper.com
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