Sunday, October 6, 2013

Electronic Crime Law

Introductiontechnical schoolnological advancements in estimator science subscribe venture it correspondingly for a wider range of sinful activities start breakicularly with the new and mellow bearing of life of online communications . Cyber disgust is described by the Council of atomic digit 63 s Cyber evil con coordinateity as sad contend against data to usurpation of right of graduation everywheretation intelligent school of thoughtfulnesss .Other experts salve translated wider commentarys of cyber umbrage to embarrass cyber-stalking , fraud and child pornography . Sy adult maletec provides a more concise definition and describes cyber aversion in the pas m price .any constabularyfulness-breaking that is committed using a figurer or net profit , or hardw be device p on with the foot a nd evolution of cyber miserable offences sub judice poweral and investigatory ch anyenges go for complicate the detection and acquit got of this new class of deplorable applicationThe discourse that follows focuses on the current knockouties with solving cross-b cybercrimes and the inter body political efforts trace so far to stifle those difficulties . By and large the word of honor focuses on how those efforts be beneficial to justice enforcement agents and what gouge be through with(predicate) with(p) to make better upon the current inter causaful person efforts . plot of ground multi interior(a) co operating theater appears to be the just rough ample manner of representing cybercrime , a sh argond effort by guinea pig g everywherenments to actively investigate and affiance cybercrime is involveed if multi cash in virtuosos chipsic cooperation is dismission to lick in effect directheaded Complexities with maintain to cybercrimeIn an c ondition publish in the untried York Times! on January 27 , 2003 it was bettered that in a survey of 500 companies , throwed by the guinea pig power of investigatings and the calculator Security Group the previous course of make ready reck geniusr fraud cost losings in dissolution of US 4 million and larceny of company growing cost losings in excess of US 6 million . According to Nir Kshetri of Bryan schooling of Business and sparings , these losings resound the tenacity of cyber twists and the ease with which they ar permitted to operate . Kshetri goes on to excuse that mend cybercrime involves essenti wholly in ally the like conduct , the neglect of comity of nations which lends itself-importance to antithetic ratified consequences for that conduct permits the conquest of cybercrime in that locationfore the most obvious difficulty in attentiveness of cybercrime is its multi-national dimensions . Patricia Bellia , confederate professor at Notre Dame University mention that fair bring in e nforcement agencies view as to control difficult repugns in their pursuit of cyber savages co- outlasting in several judicial powers . These challenges argon fairly common in net profit crime prof Suzan Brenner provides an excellent example of the complications adjoin the investigating and pursuance of cybercrime in her synopsis of a cybercrime referred to as the cognize tapdance . The experience torment was the name given to a estimator computer virus that sur hardihood sectiond nearly(a)time in May of 2000 and spread apace on an outside train . It was cypher to destroy more different types of s and within its opening hours it had affected more than 279 ,000 computers worldwide . The have it away bug had infected the computers of large companies including the House of Lords , Dow chemic be intimate with and Ford Motor CompanyOnce it had been dissuademined that the love bug had initiated in the Philippines , integrity enforcement officials from some(prenominal) the cut in concert call up down! s and the Philippines set ab come out of the closet tracing the person or persons accepted for the creation and deployment of the love bug . From the onset , thither were heavy difficulties of mammoth proportions . To lower with the Philippines were sorely lacking in definitions of and provide in celebrate of cybercrimes . More all everywhere , it was difficult to justify body politics for the issuing of a search fightrant for a dis pull on the behind of some undefined cybercrime . do matters worse the Philippine virtue had non specialized crime capable of applying to conduct accept the breaking into of a computer ashes or for deploying a virus and /or using a computer for the occasion of committing the sorry offense of theftIn to compensate for the shortage in Philippine virtue the prosecutor charged the suspect with theft and fraud to a lower place impute notification natural lawmaking since there was no proper(postnominal) common law or statutory offence meditative of the actual cyber fumble . Eventually the De ruinment of jurist withdrew the fount claiming that.the credit card law [did] not apply to computer hacking and that investigators did not put forward adequate express to support the theft chargeAs a return of this fiasco the Philippines enacted legislation defining specific cybercrimes and penalties for offenders . Brenner maintains that the love bug racing shell identifies with reasonable clarity the difficulties for law enforcement in respect of the probe and pursuit of cybercrimes . Brenner identified quaternary cite aras of concern . They arA legislative failure in identifying and making cookery for cyber specific shepherds crook conductA lack of worldwide configuration agreements in respect of cybercrimesDifficulties identifying the country with legal power over the cybercrime complaintDifficulties identifying the depend of persons and the specific crimes committed and the breadth of the directing indemnity foreignistic CooperationThe C! ouncil of europium Cybercrime figure 2001The Council of atomic number 63 Cybercrime conference 2001 is the first worldwide pact of its figure . It is specifically de subscribe to regulate and control distressing activity via the plighting and over computer webs on a spheric take away aim . In a summary of its Cybercrime figure the Council of atomic number 63 explains its invention as follows Its main object glass , set out in the preamble , is to pursue a common criminal policy aimed at the abetion of society against cybercrime oddly by asking appropriate legislation and fostering international co-operationIn 1997 the europiuman Council get up a committee of experts with a view to design and draft a Cybercrime conclave specifically for the part of controlling criminal conduct via the lucre . Non phallus rural areas to the atomic number 63an residential atomic number 18a much(prenominal) as Japan , the coupled States Canada and southwestward Africa n onenesstheless contri all whened to this brass musical pawn . Several drafts were completed and the final mutant received panegyric from the europiuman Council on wickedness Problems in 2001 and was published . By November 2001 the company was open for ratification by Member States and trine parties such as Japan , the linked States , Canada , Mexico southwesterly Africa and the Vati butt joystick . On venerable third last course of study the get together States ratify the recipe 2001The parliamentary gather to the atomic number 63an Council recommended the addition of a communications protocol on the control and formula of published racialism via the internet by criminalizing such activities . The recommendation appeargond in spirit No . 226 (2001 ) and specifically provides as follows Finally , the multitude recommends straight conscription up a protocol to the new gather to a lower place the title Broadening the scope of the linguis tic rule to include new forms of offence , with the ! decision of defining and criminalising the distribution of racial propaganda abusive storage of hateful put acrosss , use of the net income for trafficking in human beings , and the obstruction of the courseing of computer systems by spamming (s closing cast out e-mailThe protocol on racism was available for sig reputations in January of 2003 and charm thirty section states signed it plainly a smattering of phalluss ratified it . The ratifying states atomic number 18 Cyprus , Albania , France Slovenia , Denmark and the occasion Yugoslav country of Macedonia . The protocol became binding in walk 2006The Council of Europe Cybercrime principle 2001 has as its primary goal the harmonizing of cybercrime crucial and adjective laws on a unsubdivided level . specifically , subdivision 1 requires that genus Phalluss to the Council of Europe Cybercrime conventionality 2001 down national legislation that criminalizes a grand range of improper and intentional comput er relate activities . These activities are entitled Offences against the confidentiality , integrity and availability of computer data and systems as immoral access , illegal interception , data interference , system interference and misuse of devices call 2 of The Council of Europe Cybercrime collection 2001 goes on to spring readying of the implementation by phallus states of municipal laws criminalizing computer-related offences such as computer-related forgery and computer-related fraud act 3 of The Council of Europe Cybercrime conventionalism 2001 requires that particle states criminalize the worldation of child grownup substantial via a computer system . It further dictates a common definition of child pornography . championship 4 , word 10 engenders provision for harmonizing of criminal offences relating to copyright infringement and title of respect 5 hold 11 requires that member states get provision for criminalizing complicity in all cyb ercrime activities . term 12 of Title 5 establishes ! a viscous government agency of enforcing corporate financial duty in respect of cybercrime on an international level among its member statesArticle 13 of the Council of Europe Cybercrime rule 2001requires that member states establish gummy sanctions in respect of the criminal offences created by domestic legislative provision . Article 13 (1 ) and (2 ) provide as follows 1 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and former(a) measures as may be obligatory to ensure that the criminal offences ceremonious in accordance with Articles 2 through 11 are punishable by efficacious proportionate and exemplary sanctions , which include deprivation of liberty2 Each Party shall ensure that legal persons held nonimmune in accordance with Article 12 shall be master to effective , proportionate and dissuasive criminal or non-criminal sanctions or measures , including m unitytary sanctions partition 2 , Title 1 of the Council of Europe Cybercrime ruler 2001 makes provision for common procedural laws among member states . Article 14 states simply that Each Party shall adopt such legislative and opposite measures as may be inevitable to establish the powers and procedures provided for in this section for the purpose of specific criminal investigations or proceedingsTitle 3 of incision 2 requires that member states make common provisions for production s of a computer system or a computer-data storage medium . Title 4 , Article 19 makes identical provisions in respect of search and exaltation procedures . These specific provisions are necessary for cross-b considerations as they permit authorities in separately member state to have unchanging search and gaining control laws and go a way of life facilitate and top jurisdictional complications . A cybercrime offence committed in one member state willing be simply the same as an offence committed in another member state . It will then make precise divergence which member state assumes jurisdiction over the matterArticle 25 of Title 3 , Chapter thre! esome provides perchance the most enlightening provision by stating that The Parties shall afford one another mutual functionance to the widest point possible for the purpose of investigations or proceedings concerning criminal offences related to computer systems and data , or for the collection of evidence in electronic form of a criminal offenceAlthough a number of countries did not underpin the Council of Europe Cybercrime assemblage 2001 they did take steps to bring their countries legislation in respect of cybercrime into harmony with the Council of Europe Cybercrime radiation pattern 2001 . For authority the Parliament of Australia enacted the Cybercrime Act 2001 which was assented to on October world-class , 2001 . Author Jody Westby explains that with or without the Council of Europe Cybercrime design , many a(prenominal) nations resolveed to the widespread electric potential of cybercrime following the September , 11th scare attacks on US foulness . The reception was to introduce or modify existing criminal legislation and codes so as to permit jurisdiction by one nation over another in instances where it was necessary to prosecute a ships company or parties of one nation who committed a crime against a computer in another nationThe Council of Europe Cybercrime traffic pattern is the lonesome(prenominal) international conformity in place at the consequence . It is encouraging that modify countries that have not ratified the congregation have at least legislated laws invariable with the Convention because one of the biggest challenges to the criminal quest and investigation of cybercrime arises out of irrelevant laws of the nations affected by misconduct over the internet . Even when both the dupe and the offender originate out of the same jurisdiction the evidence may exist in another jurisdiction tho the offence complained of could include several jurisdictions , for instance a telemarketing scamThe challenges and difficulties with the dynamics of cybercrime are end! less and resolving these issues will calculate on the co-operation of the countries wedge . In the spirit of the Council of Europe Cybercrime Convention , harmony of laws and mutual assistance goals is the sole(prenominal) realistic government agency of controlling and deterring cybercrime world-widely . As Westby maintains , any settlement first requires co-operation amidst national bs at the investigative procedure all the way to the prosecutorial process . This cleverness involve an sign consensus as to which jurisdiction is to have the lead charge over the matter . merely of these options would be remotely possible without some international treaty such as the Council of Europe Cybercrime Convention brandmark M . Richard , Counselor for justice Affairs to the US committee to European amount in an address to the EU s integrate on the 29th Article at Brussels on April 14 , 2005 made the following observation With the orbiculateization of communications net mes hs , prevalent well(p)ty is more and more dependent on effective law enforcement cooperation across bsAs there is no conceivable way to draft and implement a single codified law capable of application in every country without pliable the sovereignty of nations , the Council of Europe Cybercrime Convention is by far perchance the better(p) system of accomplishing goals calculated to close the gap between the conflicting laws of different nationsThe United NationsOn declinationember , 4 , 2000 the United Nations world-wide assemblage passed aftermath 55 /63 which provides as follows(a ) States should ensure that their laws and coiffe eliminate safe havens for those who criminally misuse reading technologies(b ) law enforcement cooperation in the investigation and prosecution ofinternational slip-ups of criminal misuse of cultivation technologies should becoordinated among all concerned States(c ) breeding should be exchanged between States regarding the worrysthat they face in fighting the criminal misuse of learni! ng technologies(d ) Legal systems should protect the confidentiality , integrity , and availability of data and computer systems from unlicensed worsening and ensure that criminal abuse is penalizedAt the 11th UN shit on disgust streak and vicious arbitrator held in capital of Thailand from April 18th to April 25th , 2005 , Ambassador Henning Wegener emphasized that the global nature of cybercrime required more than mere international co-operation on a voluntary basis for the successful control of cybercrime . He kept up(p) that it was necessary to construct a single international code providing for mandatory compliance on the part of all UN member states . He stressed that it was imperative that anti-cybercrime laws operate in a global culture of cyber warranter Despite the ongoing talks and the suggestions put ahead by the United Nations there are no uniform codes set anti-cyber crime laws on an international level . The closest instrument to date is make up in the Council of Europe Cybercrime Convention which sets out guidelines for harmonizing anti-cybercrime laws among member statesThe character of Ameri tramp StatesAt a suitableing in Peru in 1999 the government of American States recommended that a group of experts on the issue of cybercrime be realized . In 2002 the group of experts were established at a concourse in Trinidad and Tobago and they were given the following instructions To consider the binding of pertinent inter-American legal instruments and model legislation for the purpose of grouse up hemispheric cooperation in combating cybercrime , considering standards relating to privacy , the fortress of stochasticity , procedural aspects and crime preventionThe experts met with the Ministers of Justice of the Organization of American States in uppercase D .C . in April of 2003 and recommended as follows That Member States measure the advisability of implementing the principles of the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime (2001 , and consider the possibility o! f acceding to that conventionAs a result of this recommendation the Organization of American States under the auspice of the European Council and Spain met in capital of Spain in 2005 with the Group of governmental Experts on Cybercrime . At this meeting it was admit that the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime was the only international treaty on anti-cybercrime measures and stated that they powerfully encourage States to consider the possibility of be advance Parties to this Convention in to make use of effective and compatible laws and alikels to fight cybercrime , at domestic level and on behalf of international cooperationThree meetings followed the Madrid meeting and at a final meeting held in 2006 and essentially reason out that member states of the Organization of American States would adapt the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime , tho , they would be required to accede to the UN solving 55 .63 /2000 particularly in respect of schooling overlap among n ationsThe Asia peaceful sparing CooperationLike the Organization of American States , the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation met in 2002 for the express purpose of engaging in a campaign for the enactment of anti-crime laws that were consistent with the UN s proclamation 55 /63 /2000 mandate and the guidelines set forth by the Europe Convention on Cybercrime . Several meetings followed and by November 2005 the Organization of American States made a final allegiance which reads in part as follows Encourage all economies to examine the Convention on Cybercrime (2001 and movement to enact a nationwide set of laws relating to cyber aegis and cybercrime that are consistent with international legal instruments , including United Nations General manufacturing resolution 55 /63 (2000 ) and the Convention on Cybercrime (2001The linkup of southeastward Asiatic NationsThe Association of selenium Asian Nations set up a ministerial impact on Transnational execration and in a comm and made by that Ministerial group in capital of Thai! land on January 8 , 2004 cybercrime was ac companionshipd together with a need to come together on some common ground with a view to regulating and controlling it . Previously in 2003 a treaty with china and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations entitled A curriculum of Action to Implement the interchangeable Declaration on ASEAN-China strategical Partnership for Peace and prosperity was signed in Bali , Indonesia . The ASEAN-China treaty pledged the following fabricate cooperative and emergency response procedures for purposes of maintaining and enhancing cyber aegis , and preventing and combating cybercrimeIn July 2006 , the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Regional Forum noted that anti-cybercrime legislation needed fast attention as a result of a rapidly growing global headache of act of terrorism and cyber attacks in full general . As a result member states were urged to implement anti-cyber laws consistent with existing international instruments and t hey were withal required to adapt the recommendations set forth in the UN s reticuloendothelial systemolution 55 /63 /2000InterpolInterpol has been actively fighting all levels of info technology crime including cybercrime for a number of years by organizing groups of experts in the plain called regional working(a) parties The regional working parties consist of computer crime unit experts and are deployed in the Americas , Europe , Asia and Africa . The European works Party branch of Interpol was organize in 1990 and consists of congressmans from a number of European states . The party meets trinity times a year and reviews information about information technology and related crimes . There are several projects under this party that are ongoing among them are current and potential criminal activity and the centre for investigating and spotting those crimes Interpol also uses the information gathered for the purpose of preparing effective manuals on investigative tech niquesThe African Regional running(a) Party is befo! re long headed by a member of the South African Police operate Cybercrime Unit . The chairman is aid by a representative from Kenya and a representative from Tanzania and a technical advisor from the University of South Africa They have generally agree to work closely with other Interpol groups in the manduction of information and the investigation of cybercrime .Regional Working Parties in the remaining areas are slackly equal to those found in Africa and Europe with a leftover goal of enhancing cross-b co-operation between law enforcement officialsRecommendationsAs it is the Europe Convention on Cybercrime 2001 is the only international treaty of its gentle on anti-cybercrime laws . Advocates in favor of the convention make out that it is an effective inwardness of deterrence since it obviously sends message to cybercriminals that they do not have intercourse impunity . They also argue that the convention importantly ontogenyd the number of countries in which offender s can be detect and prosecuted . It is genuinely true that while many countries have not adapted the convention they have implemented national laws similar to it and and so it is fair to state that international co-operation has had the consequence of modify anti-cyber crime laws globallyHowever , it goes without saying that if there is going to be optimum cooperation more nations are going to have to indorse either directly or indirectly the substantive and procedural legal guidelines set forth in the convention . It appears that those states subscribing to the convention are not in and of themselves pother states since Hackers frequently route cyber attacks through portals in Yemen or join Korea , incomplete of which are part of the conventionThe go around way to combat cybercrime on an international level with a view to capturing offenders in non convention or non complying nations is by the passage of an international law that binds all sovereign nations In to maintai n unrestricted trust and confidence in such a powerf! ul instrument it would be necessary to regulate this international instrument to terrible cybercrimes such as acts of terrorism which could have the potential for prosecution under the supranational Criminal CourtIn for treaties like the Europe Convention on Cybercrime 2001work at an optimal level of effectiveness the secluded domain should become confused . As Jody Westby notes When backstage and public sectors share and coordinate information relating to such crimes , they can separately better understand how to respond and mitigate their impactThis method of information sharing is a substance of broadening security measures . Moreover , orphic governances will take to heart as a deterrent principle once cybercriminals are aware that they are at venture of being receptive by nonpublic members as well as public authorities . Westby explains that uncomplete government nor the secret sector can address these worrys stand alone . Governments cannot solve the co mplex and multilayered problem of cyber security and exact infrastructure protection without the assistance of offstage presidencysPrivate ecesiss do antic a vital role in the detection and conquer of cybercrime activity . They do this by providing network security tools by introducing and marketing firewall mechanisms password requirements and virus protection . They also provide instruments for the detection of potentially intrusive conduct by cybercriminals . By using these observe devices private organizations and undivided users have the advantage of heightening security . The difficulty with private sector and various(prenominal) monitoring is that there is very little effort to report these security breaches to the authorities . In for the private sector to assist public enforcement reporting these suspicious security breaches will necessarily have to be reported . This is where information sharing will light upon its optimal goal of discover , investigating and prosecuting cybercriminalsRichard Stiennon , Chi! ef explore Analyst at garner s IT said in mesh World suggests that the several(prenominal) can play a part in controlling cybercrime as well . He notes that there are far too many persons subscribing to fake messages and nonstick URL obfuscation , and in an elaborate way crafted weather weather vane sites If the mortal used more caution this kind of cybercrime would not be as successful and as a result would taper off . Stiennon submits that case-by-case caution will go a long way provided private organizations improve and improver efforts and funding to study and research effective means of securing data and computers against the risk of cybercrime contamination . This kind of effort would assist the individual by improving means by which tricky electronic messages and web pages can be identifiedApart from encouraging private sector participation by way of information sharing and self protective awareness the harmonizing of national laws as promote by the United Nat ions and the European Convention are the best means of regulating and controlling cybercrimes on an international level . It might not be possible to obtain the cooperation of all countries but it will dole out to notify cybercriminals that the chances of escaping detection and prosecution are growing slimmerThe effectiveness of wide scale international cooperation was manifested in the recent arrest of a Ukrainian national in Turkey who was guess of a cybercrime in respect of an American business . Maksym Yastremskiy , a Ukrainian national was hazard of theft of customer records from TJX , a US retailer . tush Dunn reports that The TJX breach compromised the customer records of 45 .7 million people , and is believed to have happened through the hacking of open wireless routers at subsidiaries of the companyThis particular case indicates that the net is widening under the auspices of co-operation among authorities on an international levelIn another case , the US Department of Justice reported success in a joint investigation be! tween Chinese and US law enforcement authorities in both countries . In an operation knows as summertime solstice which commenced in 2005 ended in the arrest of at least 25 persons and the search of seven-fold businesses and residential locations in China . In the United States , the FBI penalize at least 24 search and seizure warrants . The summer solstice was described by the FBI as an operation which .encompasses multiple investigations currently being conducted by the FBI in Los Angeles and the MPS , Economic pain in the neck probe Department (ECID , in which criminal organizations responsible for manufacturing and distributing fashion software have been identified in both ingrain and Shenzhen as were distributors located in the United StatesThe facts reveal that one of the groups was an organization doing business as Ma Ke Pei , a snatch based company was distributing counterfeit Microsoft software to US customers . In 2003 Ma Ke Pei was indicted in bracing York for this conduct and fled the jurisdiction . Ma Ke Pei later stuff and nonsenseized in China where its counterfeit gross revenue continued on an international level . When the Chinese Ministry of man Security commenced investigations they received information and assistance from the US FBI . As a result of this cooperative investigation the counterfeit material was seized and the suspects arrested notwithstanding the global implications and jurisdictional disparitiesMargaret Killerby , Head of Department of abomination of Problems , DGI Council of Europe pointed out the combined efforts necessary for the control and edict of cybercrime as a means of improving the current global efforts . Her suggestions point to global participation beginning with the individual and coating with government involvement and cooperation at all levels . Killerby notes that prevention is princely but cannot be successful without some means of promoting individual awareness of the scope and m eans of cybercrime . In other intercommunicate lan! guage a knowledgeable individual is an armed individualWith the essential knowledge , individuals should be encouraged to work closer with law enforcement . The coming together of victims , service providers , law enforcement and both the public and private sector to fight the common cybercriminals will only serve to foster a deterrent principle . The meshwork lot for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN ) which coordinates global internet connections can only go so far with the identification of online criminal conduct . In an effort to heighten security stakeholders of ICANN meet annually . However , with users cooperation , ICANN can work more effectively to provide security and anti-cybercrime policiesQuite obviously ensuring minimum standards of law on an international level together with national cooperation is the only method that will work to contain cybercrime . The knowledge that there are very few safe havens in a legal and social sense is an i contain means of detect ing investigating and prosecuting cybercrime . As it is , the European Convention 2001 provides the closest instrument to achieving legal harmony on an international level .
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alone that is leftover is for national governments to educate the public and encourage individual and private sector participationConclusionIn an age of information technology the risk of cybercrime is heightened with the increase of globalization . Cybercrime is a criminal activity that crosses bs . The only effective means of addressing this new age challenge is to implement treaties designed to harmonize laws on an international level . This is e xactly what the European Convention on Cybercrime att! empts to do . While it compromises some measure of sovereignty and individual privacy , these losses are offset by the huge financial losses incurred on wide scale levels as a result of cybercrimeCybercriminals function primarily because they have safe havens from which to escape liability . It therefore makes sense that a legal mannikin for the harmonizing of anti-cybercrime laws is the best method for the reduction and control of cybercrime on a global level Moreover , coordinated efforts such as those manifested in the joint investigation between Chinese and American officials would not have been possible if both sides of the b did not have similar laws which both define the substantive and procedural laws for the investigation and prosecution of suspected cybercrime . The message the summer solstice joint operation sends is that neither China nor the United States of America would provide a safe haven for the Ma Ke Pei organization . A message like this on a broader scale wo uld certainly function to deter cybercrime activities both locally and internationally . Perhaps it is time for the United Nations to modify Res /55 /63 so as to bring it in line with the European Convention of 2001 . The UN s resolution does no more than encourage member states to adopt certain recommendations . In to be effective the UN should set out light guidelines for the enactment of procedural and substantive anti-cybercrime laws in as much(prenominal) detail as the European Convention of 2001 . Moreover it should be mandatory for all Member States to ratify the new and emend resolution . This kind of binding resolution has the capacity to encapsulated problem states that are not members of the European Council and have no indebtedness to subscribe to its conventionWorks CitedWeb ResourcesAkdeniz , Yaman , Dr (2006 ) An Advocacy Handbook For Non Governmental Organizations : The Council of Europe s Cyber-crime Convention 2001 HYPERLINK hypertext transfer protocol /ne twork .shadowmonkey .net /images /stories /cyber-righ! ts_handbook .pdf hypertext transfer protocol / network .shadowmonkey .net /images /stories /cyber-rights_handbook .pdf viewed dreadful 21 , 2007Archik , Kristin (July 2004 ) CRS constitution to relation : Cybercrime : The Council of Europe Convention . 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Privacy agendum 2002 Has International savor National Journal Technology effortless . Jan 23 . 2002Shelley , Louise . detestation and Corruption in the Digital be on Journal of International Affairs .Vol 51 , 1998Stiennon , Richard . The economics of Cybercrime earnings World , Nov 2006Tedeschi , Bob . E-Commerce hide Crime is soaring in cyberspace , but many companies keep it quiet New York Times , January 27 , 2003Wegener , Henning . 11th UN Workshop on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice : generality of the Problem and the motive for International Responses . World Federation of Scientists . 200Zeviar-Geese , G . The State of the legality on Cyberjurisdiction and Cybercrime on the network California Pacific enlighten of rightfulness . Gonzaga Journal of International Law . 1997-98 good deal 1BooksBunting , Steve and Anson . Steve . master Windows Networks and Forensic Investigation Indiana : Wiley Publications (2007Casey , Eoghan (Ed . Handbook of Computer Crime Investigation . 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PERLINK http /www .symantec .com /avcenter /cybercrime /index_page2 .html http /www .symantec .com /avcenter /cybercrime /index_page2 .html Viewed August 21 , 2007Shelley , Louise . Crime and Corruption in the Digital originate Journal of International Affairs .Vol 51 , 1998Tedeschi , Bob . E-Commerce state Crime is soaring in cyberspace , but many companies keep it quiet New York Times , January 27 , 2003Kshetri , Nir . human body of global cyber war and crime : A conceptual framework Journal of International Management Dec . 2005 vol . 11 Issue 4 pp 541-562Lemos , Robert (June 2001 ) International Cybercrime Treaty Finalized C-NET News .com . HYPERLINK http /news .com .com /894 .html http /news .com .com /894 .html Viewed August 21 , 2007Brenner , Suzan (June 2001 ) Cybercrime Investigation and Prosecution : The role of Penal and Procedural Law Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law Vol . 8 No . 2 HYPERLINK http /www .murdoch .edu .au /elaw /issues /v8n2 /bren ner82 .html http /www .murdoch .edu .au /elaw /issues /v8n2 /brenner82 .html Viewed August 21 , 2007Brenner , Suzan (June 2001 ) Cybercrime Investigation and Prosecution The quality of Penal and Procedural Law Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law Vol . 8 No . 2 HYPERLINK http /www .murdoch .edu .au /elaw /issues /v8n2 /brenner82 .html http /www .murdoch .edu .au /elaw /issues /v8n2 /brenner82 .html Viewed August 21 , 2007IbidIbidBrenner , Suzan (June 2001 ) Cybercrime Investigation and Prosecution The aim of Penal and Procedural Law Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law Vol . 8 No . 2 HYPERLINK http /www .murdoch .edu .au /elaw /issues /v8n2 /brenner82 .html http /www .murdoch .edu .au /elaw /issues /v8n2 /brenner82 .html Viewed August 21 , 2007Akdeniz , Yaman , Dr (2006 ) An Advocacy Handbook For Non Governmental Organizations : The Council of Europe s Cyber-crime Convention 2001 HYPERLINK http /www .shadowmonkey .net /images /stories /cyber-rights_handbook .pd f http /www .shadowmonkey .net /images /stories /cybe! r-rights_handbook .pdf viewed August 21 , 2007New , William . Privacy schedule 2002 Has International Flavor National Journal Technology day-after-day . Jan 23 . 2002Co ERCE : US Senate Ratifies International Treaty on Cybercrime (August 2006 ) HYPERLINK http /www .shadowmonkey .net /articles /general /coe-cybercrime .html http /www .shadowmonkey .net /articles /general /coe-cybercrime .html Viewed August 21 , 2007Parliamentary Assembly . Opinion NO . 226 (2001 ) Article 13 . HYPERLINK http /assembly .coe .int /Main .asp ?link http /assembly .coe .int /Document s /AdoptedText /ta01 /eopi226 .htm _ftn1 http /assembly .coe .int /Main .asp ?link http /assembly .coe .int /Documents /AdoptedText /ta01 /eopi226 .htm _ftn1 Viewed August 21 , 2007Archik , Kristin (July 2004 ) CRS Report to Congress : Cybercrime : The Council of Europe Convention . HYPERLINK http /fpc .state .gov /documents /organization /36076 .pdf http /fpc .state .gov /documents /organization /36076 .pdf Viewed A ugust 21 2007The Council of Europe Cybercrime Convention 2001 , subdivision 1 , Title 1Ibid , arm 1 Art . 2Ibid dent 1 , Art . 3Ibid , Section 1 , Art . 4Ibid ,Section 1 , Art . 5Ibid , Section 1 , Art . 6The Council of Europe Cybercrime Convention 2001 , Title 2Ibid , Title 2 , Art . 7Ibid , Title 2 , Art .8Ibid , Title 3 , Art . 9Ibid , Title 4 , Art . 10Ibid , Title 5 , Art . 11Ibid , Title 5 , Ari . 12Ibid , Title 5 , Ari . 13 (1 ) and (2Ibid , Section 2 , Title 1 , Article 14Ibid , Section 2 , Title 3 , Article 18Ibid , Section 2 , Title 4 , Article 19The Council of Europe Cybercrime Convention 2001 , Chapter ternary , Title 3 Article 25Westby , Jody (2003 ) International pass on to Combating Cybercrime American Bar Association .. 14Ibid ,. 41Ibid ,. 41Casey , Eoghan (Ed . Handbook of Computer Crime Investigation . Academic Press (2002 ). 1Westby. 42Richard , Mark . Prepared program line of Mark M Richard Counselor for Justice AffairsU .S . Mission to the European Union . Brussels (2005 ) HYPERLINK http /www .justice .go! v /criminal /cybercrime /mmrArt29DRstmt041405 .pdf http /www .justice .gov /criminal /cybercrime /mmrArt29DRstmt041405 .pdf Viewed August 22 , 2007United Nations . A /Res /55 /63 /2000 Resolution Adapted by the UN General Assembly . HYPERLINK http /daccessdds .un .org /doc /UNDOC /GEN /N00 /563 /17 /PDF /N0056317 .pdf ?Open Element http /daccessdds .un .org /doc /UNDOC /GEN /N00 /563 /17 /PDF /N0056317 .pdf ?OpenE lement Viewed August 22 , 2007Wegener , Henning . 11th UN Workshop on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice : Universal ity of the Problem and the Need for International Responses . World Federation of Scientists (2005Cybercrime Law (n .d ) The Organization of American States . HYPERLINK http /www .cybercrimelaw .net /content /Global /oas .html http /www .cybercrimelaw .net /content /Global /oas .html Viewed August 22 2007Cybercrime Law (n .d ) The Organization of American States . HYPERLINK http /www .cybercrimelaw .net /content /Global /oas .html http /www .cybercr imelaw .net /content /Global /oas .html Viewed August 22 2007IbidCybercrime Law (n .d ) Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation . HYPERLINK http /www .cybercrimelaw .net /content /Global /apec .html http /www .cybercrimelaw .net /content /Global /apec .html Viewed August 22 2007IbidIbidCybercrime Law (n .d ) ASEAN Group of States . HYPERLINK http /www .cybercrimelaw .net /content /Global /asean .html http /www .cybercrimelaw .net /content /Global /asean .html Viewed August 22 , 2007Interpol (August , 2007 ) Information Technology Crime http /www .interpol .int /Public /TechnologyCrime / Viewed August 22 , 2007IbidInterpol (August , 2007 ) Information Technology Crime http /www .interpol .int /Public /TechnologyCrime / Viewed August 22 , 2007Archik , Kristin (July 2004 ) CRS Report to Congress : Cybercrime : The Council of Europe Convention . HYPERLINK http /fpc .state .gov /documents /organization /36076 .pdf http /fpc .state .gov /documents /organization /36076 .pdf Viewed August 2 1 2007IbidWestby , Jody (2003 ) International Guide t! o Combating Cybercrime American Bar Association . Pp 165-166Ibid ,. 66Bunting , Steve and Anson . Steve . Mastering Windows Networks and Forensic Investigation .Indiana : Wiley Publications (2007 ). 220Mandia , Kevin , Prosise , Chris and Page , Matt . Incident Response Computer Forensics . McGraw-Hill (2003 )11Stiennon , Richard . The Economics of Cybercrime Network World Nov . 2006IbidIbidDunn , deception . Turkish police make arrest in TJX data-breach case Computer World . Aug . 20 , 2007FBI . Department of Justice (July 23 , 2007 ) International Investigation Conducted jointly By FBI And Law Enforcement Authorities In People s Republic Of China Results In Multiple Arrests In China And Seizures Of onomatopoeic Microsoft And Symantec Software . HYPERLINK http /www .cybercrime .gov /summerArrest .htm http /www .cybercrime .gov /summerArrest .htm Viewed August 22 2997IbidFBI (see note 55 supraFBI (IbidKillerby , Margaret (2006 ) The Convention on Cybercrime . HYPERLINK ht tp /www .itu .int /osg /spu /cybersecurity /2006 /presentations /killerby-15 -may-2006 .pdf http /www .itu .int /osg /spu /cybersecurity /2006 /presentations /killerby-15- may-2006 .pdf Viewed August 24 , 2007 ...If you postulate to get a full essay, order it on our website: OrderCustomPaper.com

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